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赵婉莹,张琦,施正香.复合保温卷帘改善寒区开放式牛舍冬季热湿环境[J].农业工程学报,2018,34(21):215-221.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2018.21.026
复合保温卷帘改善寒区开放式牛舍冬季热湿环境
投稿时间:2018-04-16  修订日期:2018-07-25
中文关键词:  环境调控  温度  传热系数  保温卷帘  奶牛舍  冬季保温
基金项目:现代农业(奶牛)产业技术体系(CARS-36)
作者单位
赵婉莹 1. 中国农业大学水利与土木工程学院北京 100083 
张琦 1. 中国农业大学水利与土木工程学院北京 1000832. 苏州赛诺沃机械科技有限公司苏州市 215215 
施正香 1. 中国农业大学水利与土木工程学院北京 100083 
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中文摘要:针对北方寒区卷帘牛舍冬季舍内温度过低、影响奶牛健康和生产的现状,该文结合黑龙江地区的气候特点,以牛舍温度不低于(5 ℃为设计目标,通过对卷帘材料的传热性能、厚度和面密度等进行测试,研究筛选了2种传热系数小于1.23 W/(m2(℃)的复合保温卷帘:1号白色保温卷帘(白色涤纶布+珍珠棉+喷胶棉+珍珠棉+白色涤纶布,1.01 W/(m2(℃))和2号灰色保温卷帘(PE编织布+喷胶棉+针刺棉毡+镀铝PE编织布,0.89 W/(m2(℃))。将2种保温卷帘分别安装在同一栋试验舍内,以原有的单层卷帘牛舍为对照舍进行了为期2个月的现场应用效果试验。试验结果表明,2种保温卷帘的透光性存在显著差异(P<0.05),但保温效果不存在显著差异(P>0.05);试验舍和对照舍在两侧卷帘开启25 cm、南侧开启25 cm和两侧封闭3种工况下,试验舍的平均温度和相对湿度均显著高于对照舍和舍外(P<0.05),其舍内平均温度范围是(12.45~(16.70 ℃,平均相对湿度范围是88.53%~97.73%。因此,新型保温卷帘虽然比单层卷帘具有更好的保温性能,但是奶牛依旧处于低温高湿的状况下,表明只改善卷帘的保温性能并不能保证使寒区奶牛舍内温度高于最低温度的要求,寒区应慎重采用可封闭开放式的牛舍建筑形式。
Zhao Wanying,Zhang Qi,Shi Zhengxiang.Complex insulation shutter improving winter thermal and humidity environment of open-ended cowshed in cold region[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering (Transactions of the CSAE),2018,34(21):215-221.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2018.21.026
Complex insulation shutter improving winter thermal and humidity environment of open-ended cowshed in cold region
Author NameAffiliation
Zhao Wanying 1. College of Water Resource and Civil Engineer, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
 
Zhang Qi 1. College of Water Resource and Civil Engineer, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
2. Suzhou Sanovo Machinery Technology Co., Ltd, Suzhou 215215, China 
Shi Zhengxiang 1. College of Water Resource and Civil Engineer, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
 
Key words:environmental control  temperature  heat transfer coefficient  insulation shutter  cowshed  heat preservation in winter
Abstract: The health and production status of dairy cows was affected by low temperature in winter in the cold regions in the north of china. If cows are kept in low temperature for a long time, it will lose a lot of heat, the resistance decreases, and the energy utilization efficiency of the diet decreases, the welfare condition decreases. According to the climate character in Heilongjiang province and the design target is not less than -5 ℃ in test cowshed, this experiment analyzed heat transfer coefficient of single-layer shutter and compared the heat transfer coefficient, surface density and thickness of combination of different materials that can be used to make up new composite insulation shutters. This experiment made some kinds of composite insulation layers, and then selected 2 new insulation shutters from those and conducted a field experimental study in a cattle farm in Heilongjiang province. The determined 2 new combined insulation shutters were the white insulation shutter (white polyester cloth + pearl cotton + spraying-bonded wadding + pearl cotton + white polyester cloth, 1.01 W/(m2·℃)) and grey insulation shutter (PE intertexture cloth + spraying-bonded wadding + needled cotton felt + Aluminized PE intertexture cloth, 0.89 W/(m2·℃)). The study choice one cowshed in a farm as tested house. This cowshed was installed the two insulation shutters on east and west sides adopting the symmetrical installation of north and south which spilt the house into two parts. Then, this study choices the other same cowshed with single-layer shutter as control house. The experiment compared the temperature, humidity and illumination of test house and control house. The results showed that there was significant difference in illumination between the 2 new insulation shutters (P<0.05) and no difference in temperature (P>0.05), thus the illumination of shutters is a important factor in practical production. However, the illumination of the 2 new insulation shutters were significantly lower than the single-layer shutter (P<0.05). On the three working conditions that the south and north shutter both opened 25cm, only the south opened 25cm and both sides closed, the average temperature and relative humidity (RH) in tested house were significantly higher than that of control house and outside (P<0.05). The average temperature range in tested house, control house and outside are ?12.45-?16.70 ℃, ?14.38-?18.50 ℃ and ?16.16-?21.56 ℃, respectively, and the average relative humidity range are 88.53%-97.73 %, 82.78%-93.62% and 74.75%-79.24 %, respectively. So, though the new combined insulation shutters have better thermal insulation performance than single-layer shutter, the cowshed is still in the low temperature and high humidity conditions. This paper suggests that in order to ensure the good environmental conditions of the cowshed in winter, we should continue to improve the building envelope at the same time and improve the ventilation system to dehumidifying the air. When we choose the insulation shutter, we should pay attention on its airtight with the wall around. In conclusion, the form of open-ended cowshed with insulation layers should be cautiously adopted in cold areas.
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