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王振华,贺怀杰,郑旭荣,张金珠,李文昊.新疆典型绿洲棉秆还田对覆膜滴灌棉田残膜分布的影响[J].农业工程学报,2018,34(21):120-127.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2018.21.015
新疆典型绿洲棉秆还田对覆膜滴灌棉田残膜分布的影响
投稿时间:2018-04-30  修订日期:2018-07-10
中文关键词:  地膜  棉花  土壤  秸秆还田  典型绿洲区  残膜  膜下滴灌
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51869028、51741908);兵团中青年科技创新领军人才计划(2015BC001)
作者单位
王振华 1. 石河子大学水利建筑工程学院石河子 8320002. 现代节水灌溉兵团重点实验室石河子 832000 
贺怀杰 1. 石河子大学水利建筑工程学院石河子 8320002. 现代节水灌溉兵团重点实验室石河子 832000 
郑旭荣 1. 石河子大学水利建筑工程学院石河子 8320002. 现代节水灌溉兵团重点实验室石河子 832000 
张金珠 1. 石河子大学水利建筑工程学院石河子 8320002. 现代节水灌溉兵团重点实验室石河子 832000 
李文昊 1. 石河子大学水利建筑工程学院石河子 8320002. 现代节水灌溉兵团重点实验室石河子 832000 
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中文摘要:为探寻长期膜下滴灌棉田在采取棉秆还田后残膜的分布状况,于2016年棉花采摘后在应用膜下滴灌开始年份分别为2006年、2002年和1998年的3块棉田中采集土壤样品,然后进行棉秆粉碎还田,2017年对3块试验棉田再次进行取样,分析秸秆还田前后0~40 cm土层中残膜面积、质量及棉杆残留量。结果表明:1)秸秆还田前,3块试验田的地膜残留密度随覆膜年限增加逐年增加,棉田土壤处于严重污染状态;2)采取棉秆粉碎还田后,3个取样地块0~40 cm土壤中棉秆分布总体上呈现由上至下先增加后减少并在15~25 cm深度土壤中聚集分布的特点;3)秸秆还田后,3块取样棉田0~15 cm耕作层土壤中残膜面积占比58%以上、残膜质量占比60%以上,该层中面积>5~30 cm2和质量>50~100 mg残膜均增加显著,相对秸秆还田前的土壤残膜分别平均增加20%和10%左右。
Wang Zhenhua,He Huaijie,Zheng Xurong,Zhang Jinzhu,Li Wenhao.Effect of cotton stalk returning to fields on residual film distribution in cotton fields under mulched drip irrigation in typical oasis area in Xinjiang[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering (Transactions of the CSAE),2018,34(21):120-127.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2018.21.015
Effect of cotton stalk returning to fields on residual film distribution in cotton fields under mulched drip irrigation in typical oasis area in Xinjiang
Author NameAffiliation
Wang Zhenhua 1. College of Water and Architectural Engineering, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832000, China
2. Key Laboratory of Modern Water-Saving Irrigation of Xinjiang Production and Construction Group, Shihezi 832000, China 
He Huaijie 1. College of Water and Architectural Engineering, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832000, China
2. Key Laboratory of Modern Water-Saving Irrigation of Xinjiang Production and Construction Group, Shihezi 832000, China 
Zheng Xurong 1. College of Water and Architectural Engineering, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832000, China
2. Key Laboratory of Modern Water-Saving Irrigation of Xinjiang Production and Construction Group, Shihezi 832000, China 
Zhang Jinzhu 1. College of Water and Architectural Engineering, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832000, China
2. Key Laboratory of Modern Water-Saving Irrigation of Xinjiang Production and Construction Group, Shihezi 832000, China 
Li Wenhao 1. College of Water and Architectural Engineering, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832000, China
2. Key Laboratory of Modern Water-Saving Irrigation of Xinjiang Production and Construction Group, Shihezi 832000, China 
Key words:films  cotton  soils  stalks returning to fields  typical oasis area  residual plastic film  drip irrigation under mulching film
Abstract: The drip irrigation under mulching film technology was applied in Shihezi reclamation area of Xinjiang in 1996. It is more difficult to recover the mulching after the growing period of cotton, so that the density of residual plastic film in cotton fields exceeds the national standard (75.0 kg/hm2) which causes serious soil contamination in experiment area. Stalk returning to fields is a common method in the film mulching area. This study investigated the effect of cotton stalk returning to fields on residual film distribution. A total of 3 cotton fields were selected in typical oasis area of Xinjiang. The 3 fields were different only in the mulching duration. They were governed by the same owner. The mulched drip irrigation started from the year of 1998, 2002 and 2006. By the year of 2017, the mulching duration was 20, 16 and 12 years, respectively. Soil samples were taken from 0-40 cm layer before cotton stalk returning in 2016 and after 1 year of stalk returning in 2017. The cotton stalk was cut into 4-6 cm pieces and applied to the tillage layer with an application rate of 7 500-8 000 kg/hm2. By comparison, the effect of stalk returning was discussed. In the sampling field, the soil blocks (4 800 cm2 in area and 40 cm in height) were collected for determination of area and weight of residual film and weight of cotton stalk residue. The results showed that: 1) the residual plastic film density in the soil tillage layer of drip irrigation cotton fields increased yearly with increasing mulching years, and the cotton fields of mulched film drip irrigation more than 10 year were seriously polluted. 2) After the cotton stalks were crushed and returned to the fields, the cotton stalks in the soil of 0 to 40 cm in the 3 sampling plots were increased from top to bottom and then decreased and concentrated in the soil depth of 15-25 cm. The cotton stalks were evenly distributed on the surface after being chopped, and because the large-scale machinery was used to carry out the arable land operation, the cotton stalks on the soil surface were ploughed into the soil tillage layer of 15-25 cm depth, which was the main reason for the peaks of cotton stalks residue appeared in the soil depths of 18, 20 and 18 cm, respectively. 3) After the cotton stalks were returned to the fields, the residual plastic film area of the 0-15 cm soil layer of the 3 sampled cotton fields accounted for more than 58%, and the residual film weight accounted for more than 60%. In the soil of 0-15 cm tillage layer, the residual plastic film with the area >5-30 cm2 and the weight >50-100 mg increased significantly, and the average was about 20% and 10% higher than that in 2016, respectively. The mulched plastic film with a thickness of 0.008 mm has been broken at different degrees at the end of the cotton growth period, and it is relatively difficult to recover. In the process of smashing and returning cotton stalks with large-scale mechanical arable land, the plastic film is broken into small film in the area and weight and they accumulated continuously in the deep soil. Therefore, local area should increase the degradable biological film and the use of 0.010 mm thickness of the plastic film, improve the efficiency of residual plastic film recovery and other measures to reduce the plastic film residue in the soil layer of the fields, in order to ensure the sustainable development of agriculture in the typical oasis.
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