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漆栋良,胡田田,宋雪.适宜灌水施氮方式提高制种玉米产量及水氮利用效率[J].农业工程学报,2018,34(21):98-104.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2018.21.012
适宜灌水施氮方式提高制种玉米产量及水氮利用效率
投稿时间:2018-06-22  修订日期:2018-10-10
中文关键词:  灌水    生物量  产量  收获指数  水氮利用效率  制种玉米
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51079124);国家“十二五”863计划项目(2011AA100504)
作者单位
漆栋良 1. 西北农林科技大学旱区农业水土工程教育部重点实验室杨凌 7121002. 长江大学农学院荆州 434025 
胡田田 1. 西北农林科技大学旱区农业水土工程教育部重点实验室杨凌 712100 
宋雪 3. 郑州大学综合设计研究院有限公司郑州 450002 
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中文摘要:为通过不同灌水施氮方式调控干旱区作物收获指数提高资源利用效率,以制种玉米"金西北22号"为供试材料,进行了为期2 a的田间试验。试验采用灌水方式(交替灌水、固定灌水、均匀灌水)与施氮方式(交替施氮、固定施氮、均匀施氮)完全随机组合设计,测定生育期内作物耗水量(evapotranspiration,ET)和成熟期植株的生物量、籽粒产量及其构成(穗长、穗粗、行粒数和千粒质量等)和作物吸氮量,折算收获指数(harvest index,HI)、水分利用效率(water use efficiency,WUE)和氮利用效率(nitrogen use efficiency,NUE)。结果表明,灌水施氮方式只对行粒数有显著影响。ET只受灌水方式影响,交替灌水较其他灌水方式显著减小ET。WUE表现为:灌水方式相同时,交替施氮和均匀施氮大于固定施氮;施氮方式相同时,交替灌水>均匀灌水>固定灌水。玉米的吸氮量、HI和NUE与WUE表现出相似的规律。2013年交替灌水均匀施氮下制种玉米的HI、WUE和NUE最大,较均匀灌水均匀施氮分别增加5.46%、11.41%和19.73%。交替灌水交替施氮(水氮同区)的表现与交替灌水均匀施氮相似。2014年的结果与2013年一致。综上,交替隔沟灌溉均匀施氮和交替隔沟灌溉交替施氮(水氮同区)有利于提高制种玉米的产量和水氮利用效率。
Qi Dongliang,Hu Tiantian,Song Xue.Rational irrigation and nitrogen supply methods improving grain yield and water-nitrogen use efficiency of seed maize[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering (Transactions of the CSAE),2018,34(21):98-104.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2018.21.012
Rational irrigation and nitrogen supply methods improving grain yield and water-nitrogen use efficiency of seed maize
Author NameAffiliation
Qi Dongliang 1. Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas of Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
2. College of Agriculture, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434025, China
 
Hu Tiantian 1. Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas of Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
 
Song Xue 3.Zhengzhou University Multi-functional Design and Research Academy CO., LED, Zhengzhou 450002, China 
Key words:irrigation  nitrogen  biomass  yield  harvest index  water-nitrogen use efficiency  seed maize
Abstract: Ridge planting-furrow irrigation has been widely used, but information on rational irrigation and nitrogen (N) supply methods under ridge planting-furrow irrigation has received only limited attention. To improve harvest index (HI) and resource use efficiency of crop through different irrigation and N supply methods in arid areas, we carried out field experiments to investigate the effect of different irrigation and N supply methods on HI and water-nitrogen use efficiency of seed maize (Zay mays, Gold northwestern 22) grown in the arid area of northwest China in 2013 and 2014. All experimental ridges were built in a west-east direction. The experiment was comprised of 3 irrigation methods and 3 N supply methods in 2013. The 3 irrigation treatments included alternate furrow irrigation (AI), fixed furrow irrigation (FI) and conventional furrow irrigation (CI). In the CI treatment, all the furrows were irrigated for every irrigation event. In the AI treatment, the 2 neighboring furrows were alternately irrigated during consecutive watering events. In the FI treatment, only 1 (south furrow) of the furrows was irrigated. At each irrigation treatment, the 3 N supply treatments were used and they included alternate N supply (AN), fixed N supply (FN) and conventional N supply (CN). In the CN treatment, N fertilizer was applied to all furrows. In the AN treatment, N fertilizer was alternately applied to 1 of the neighboring 2 furrows in consecutive fertilization. In the FN treatment, N fertilizer was only supplied to 1 of every 2 furrows. Evapotranspiration (ET) during maize grown season, and biomass, grain yield and its components as well as nitrogen uptake at maturity stage of maize were measured. The HI, water use efficiency (WUE) and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) were calculated. Based on the results of 2013, the fixed treatments (fixed furrow irrigation and fixed nitrogen supply) were excluded in 2014. The results showed that, the grains per row per plant were greatly affected by irrigation and nitrogen supply methods. Thousand seed weight was only influenced by irrigation method. The ET during maize grown season was only influenced by irrigation method, and AI significantly reduced ET compared to the other irrigation methods. The WUE of maize for AN and CN was higher than that for FN in any irrigation method; AI had the highest WUE, followed by CI and FI in any nitrogen supply method. Nitrogen uptake, HI and NUE of maize showed similar results compared to WUE. AI coupled with CN achieved the highest HI, WUE and NUE in 2013, and these increased by 5.46%, 11.41% and 19.73%, respectively if compared with CI coupled with CN. AI coupled with AN (irrigation and N fertilization were conducted within a same furrow) showed a similar result compared to AI coupled with CN. The 2014 experiment verified the above results. Therefore, alternate furrow irrigation coupled with conventional nitrogen supply and alternate furrow irrigation coupled with alternate nitrogen supply (irrigation and N fertilization were conducted within a same furrow) are useful to improve grain yield and water-nitrogen use efficiency of seed maize.
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