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陈美舟,刁培松,张银平,高琪珉,杨壮,姚文燕.大豆窄行密植播种机单盘双行气吸式排种器设计[J].农业工程学报,2018,34(21):8-16.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2018.21.002
大豆窄行密植播种机单盘双行气吸式排种器设计
投稿时间:2018-07-02  修订日期:2018-09-10
中文关键词:  机械化  设计  农作物  大豆排种器  单盘双行  窄行密植  气吸式
基金项目:国家重点研发计划资助(2017YFD0700703-03)和山东省农机装备研发创新计划项目(2017YF054)
作者单位
陈美舟 山东理工大学农业工程与食品科学学院淄博 255000 
刁培松 山东理工大学农业工程与食品科学学院淄博 255000 
张银平 山东理工大学农业工程与食品科学学院淄博 255000 
高琪珉 山东理工大学农业工程与食品科学学院淄博 255000 
杨壮 山东理工大学农业工程与食品科学学院淄博 255000 
姚文燕 山东理工大学农业工程与食品科学学院淄博 255000 
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中文摘要:为满足大豆窄行密植播种作业要求,解决传统大豆播种机窄行密植行距过大,不易调节,排种性能差等问题,设计了一种单盘双行气吸式排种器,阐述了其基本结构与工作原理,并对工作过程及关键部件进行了理论分析,确定了影响排种性能的主要因素,利用搭建的单盘双行气吸式排种器试验装置进行单因素试验,得到排种性能较好情况时负压真空度、排种盘转速以及单圈吸种孔数的合理变化范围。以负压真空度、排种盘转速和单圈吸种孔数为试验因素,以合格指数、漏播指数和重播指数为指标进行3因素3水平正交试验。结果表明:对合格指数、漏播指数和重播指数各指标影响最显著的因素分别为排种盘转速、负压真空度、负压真空度;当参数组合为单圈吸种孔数64孔、排种盘转速18 r/min、负压真空度5 kPa时,内圈合格指数为98.45%,重播指数为0.72%,漏播指数为0.53%;外圈合格指数为97.82%,重播指数为0.63%,漏播指数为1.35%,对该因素组合进行试验验证,各指标优于行业标准要求。该文设计的单盘双行气吸式排种器实现了播种单体120 mm窄行密植播种,排种性能好,为黄淮海地区大豆密植播种机的研发提供参考。
Chen Meizhou,Diao Peisong,Zhang Yinping,Gao Qimin,Yang Zhuang,Yao Wenyan.Design of pneumatic seed-metering device with single seed-metering plate for double-row in soybean narrow-row-dense-planting seeder[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering (Transactions of the CSAE),2018,34(21):8-16.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2018.21.002
Design of pneumatic seed-metering device with single seed-metering plate for double-row in soybean narrow-row-dense-planting seeder
Author NameAffiliation
Chen Meizhou School of Agricultural and Food Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255000, China 
Diao Peisong School of Agricultural and Food Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255000, China 
Zhang Yinping School of Agricultural and Food Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255000, China 
Gao Qimin School of Agricultural and Food Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255000, China 
Yang Zhuang School of Agricultural and Food Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255000, China 
Yao Wenyan School of Agricultural and Food Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255000, China 
Key words:mechanization  design  crops  soybean seed-metering device  single seed-metering plate for double-row  narrow-row-dense planting  pneumatic
Abstract: Narrow-row-dense planting technology of soybean can generally increase production by more than 15% compared with conventional ridge cultivation. However, it has less research on this model and supporting equipment in the Huang-huai-hai area. At present, the traditional soybean planter has such problems as large sowing distance, poor seed-metering performance, poor stability of the device and complex structure. Due to the above problems, it's difficult to meet the requirement of narrow-row-dense planting operation of soybean. Therefore, a novel design of a pneumatic seed-metering device with single seed-metering plate for double-row was presented, which could realize 120 mm narrow-row spacing sowing together with the distributor. Despite a large number of study of other seed-metering devices, this pneumatic seed-metering device with single seed-metering plate for double-row could overcome the traditional limitations of regulating the row spacing by adjusting spacing between left and right monomers or mounting the monomers front and after. In addition, the row spacing could be changed through the use of different angle distributor, which was impossible for other seed-metering devices. Its basic structure and working principle were analyzed. It could determine the influence factors of seed-metering performance through the mechanical and dynamic analysis of the movement of seeds in filling zone, carrying zone and outside throwing point. To verify the feasibility of 120 mm narrow-row spacing sowing, the test device of pneumatic seed-metering device was built, which included the conveyor belt, seed-metering device, suction belt and transmission system, and the whole structural working mechanism of the machine was introduced in detail in this research. Three parameters, i.e. negative pressure vacuum, seed-metering plate's rotational speed and suction holes number of each lap were chosen as the influence factors of the test experiment. And the test index included leak seeding index, repeating sowing index and qualified index of inner and outer which could represent the seed-metering performance of the seed-metering device. Through the single factor experiment, the impacts of three factors were analyzed. Reasonable variation rage of various factors for better seed-metering performance was determined, while the negative pressure vacuum raged from 4.5 to 5.5 kPa, the seed-metering plate's rotational speed raged from 15 to 21 r/min and the suction holes number of each lap was changed in 3 levels of 56, 64, 72 in turn. According to the single factor test results, three-factor and three-level orthogonal experiment was carried out. The results showed that the factors had significant influence on the seed-metering performance of the outer and inner, and the inner was always better than the outer. The order of influence factors on qualified index was seed-metering plate's rotational speed, negative pressure vacuum and suction holes number of each lap; the order of influence factors on repeating sowing index was negative pressure vacuum, seed-metering plate's rotational speed and suction holes number of each lap; the order of influence factors on leak seeding index was negative pressure vacuum, seed-metering plate's rotational speed and suction holes number of each lap. The optimal conditions were as below: the suction holes number of each lap was 64, the seed-metering plate's rotational speed was 18 r/min and the negative pressure vacuum was 5 kPa. Under the above conditions, the inner qualified index was 98.45%, the inner repeating sowing index was 0.72% and the inner leak seeding index was 0.53%. In addition, the outer qualified index was 97.82%, the outer repeating sowing index was 0.63%, and the leaking seeding index was 1.35%. The verification test showed that the seed-metering device had good performance and the test index was better than this given in industrial standard. This research provides a reference for the research and development of pneumatic seed-metering device for the soybean narrow-row and close planting seeder.
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