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李汴生,卢嘉懿,阮征.植物乳杆菌发酵不同果蔬汁风味品质研究[J].农业工程学报,2018,34(19):293-299.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2018.19.037
植物乳杆菌发酵不同果蔬汁风味品质研究
投稿时间:2018-04-11  修订日期:2018-06-28
中文关键词:    发酵  果汁  挥发性风味物质  游离氨基酸  感官评价
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目“食品绿色节能制造关键技术及装备研发(2017YFD0400400)”;中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金资助项目
作者单位
李汴生 1. 华南理工大学食品科学与工程学院广州 5106402. 广东省天然产物绿色加工与产品安全重点实验室广州 510640 
卢嘉懿 1. 华南理工大学食品科学与工程学院广州 510640 
阮征 1. 华南理工大学食品科学与工程学院广州 510640 
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中文摘要:乳酸菌发酵给果蔬汁带来的风味变化及其适配性是影响品质的重要因素,用植物乳杆菌LP-115 400B分别发酵橙汁、苹果汁、梨汁、葡萄汁和青瓜汁,通过静态-顶空固相微萃取(headspace solid-phase microextraction, HS-SPME)和气质联用(gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, GC-MS)分析各果蔬汁发酵前后挥发性风味物质以及游离氨基酸、糖和酸等滋味物质的变化,并结合定量描述分析(quantitative descriptive analysis, QDA)方法进行感官评价,探索乳酸菌发酵对果蔬汁风味感官品质产生的影响和适配性问题。乳酸菌发酵代谢对不同果蔬汁风味影响差异较大。在发酵后的果蔬汁中,挥发性风味物质种类增加,其中醇酯类物质增加明显,有利于酯香型果汁果香和花香的突出(如苹果汁和梨汁);而醇香型青瓜汁的酒味、刺激性气味增加;萜烯类物质变化使得橙汁新鲜气息降低,发酵气味增强。果蔬汁中氨基酸变化显示出其与挥发性风味物质存在相互转换的关联性。发酵后当糖酸比适中时(梨汁21.00,苹果汁17.79),味感酸甜适度。
Li Biansheng,Lu Jiayi,Ruan Zheng.Favor quality of different fruit and vegetable juices fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering (Transactions of the CSAE),2018,34(19):293-299.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2018.19.037
Favor quality of different fruit and vegetable juices fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum
Author NameAffiliation
Li Biansheng 1. College of Food Science and Engineering, South China University of Technolog, GuangZhou, 510640, China
2. Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Green Processing of Natural Products and Product Safety, Guangzhou 510640, china 
Lu Jiayi 1. College of Food Science and Engineering, South China University of Technolog, GuangZhou, 510640, China
 
Ruan Zheng 1. College of Food Science and Engineering, South China University of Technolog, GuangZhou, 510640, China
 
Key words:bacteria  fermentation  fruit juices  the volatile flavor compounds  free amino acid  sensory evaluation
Abstract: Composition and concentration of volatile flavor compounds of fruit and vegetable juices have important influence on sensory properties and consumer acceptance. The effect of lactic acid bacteria metabolism on the production of bioactive compounds during growth of fruit substrate is well studied, however, the characteristics of the volatile flavor compounds of the fermented juices are less investigated. This paper aims to study the changes of flavor substances and flavor quality of orange juice, apple juice, pear juice, grape juice and cucumber juice before and after fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum LP-115 400B. Flavor of juices is characterized by interactions between volatile and non-volatile compounds, mainly acids, sugars, and free amino acids (FAA). Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) method was adopted to perform the sensory evaluation combed with the analysis of the FAA, sugars and acids. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the sensory evaluation. Volatile flavor compounds were measured by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after the preparation of samples by static headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). After fermentation, the kind of volatile flavor compounds in different juices increased, which enriched the flavor. The aldehydes were largely reduced to alcohols or oxidized to acids under microbial action. The relative content of alcohols and esters increased significantly, which was beneficial to the apple juice and pear juice, while the wine and pungent smell was increased in the fermented cucumber juice. Plenty of aromatic hydrocarbon was detected in grape juice after fermentation, which enriched the sensory flavor. Because of the changes in terpene, the fresh smell of orange juice decreased and the fermentation odor increased. Due to the metabolism of the lactic acid bacteria during fermentation, the total FAA content significantly reduced, but it still had certain influence on the flavor of fruit juices. The content of sweet amino acids, umami amino acids and bitter amino acids decreased, but the content of aromatic amino acids increased. The changes of FAA in various fruit and vegetable juices showed the correlation between FAA and volatile flavor compounds, such as the increase of the aromatic amino acids and the corresponding increase of the benzene derivatives in different juices after fermentation. The PCA of sensory evaluation showed that the fermented juices were mainly discriminated by the higher intensity of floral, fruity, fermented taste and sour (especially the apple juice and pear juice). The sweet taste of fruit juices was decreased after fermentation, which was related to the decrease of total sugar content and the decrease of sweet amino acids content. After fermentation, pear juice and apple juice showed the most comfortable sweet and sour feeling with the sugars-acids ratio of 21.00 and 17.79 respectively. These findings suggested that apple juice and pear juice may be more suitable substance for lactic acid fermentation to improve the flavor. For the other 3 kinds of juices, reducing the number of initial viable bacteria, terminating the fermentation in advance or adding flavor substances may help to optimize the flavor. In a word, lactic acid fermentation may be considered as an interesting option to enhance the flavor compounds of fruit juices and ensure a better control of flavor changes during juice processing.
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