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翟星雨,张兴义,李浩,鄂丽丽,陈帅,甄怀才,谷思玉.田块尺度顺坡垄作改等高垄作提高黑土有机质含量[J].农业工程学报,2018,34(19):155-161.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2018.19.020
田块尺度顺坡垄作改等高垄作提高黑土有机质含量
投稿时间:2018-04-10  修订日期:2018-08-03
中文关键词:  土壤  农田  含水率  有机质  等高垄作  黑土
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2017YFC0504200);国家自然科学基金(41571264)
作者单位
翟星雨 1. 东北农业大学资源与环境学院哈尔滨 1500302. 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所哈尔滨 150081 
张兴义 2. 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所哈尔滨 150081 
李浩 2. 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所哈尔滨 150081 
鄂丽丽 1. 东北农业大学资源与环境学院哈尔滨 1500302. 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所哈尔滨 150081 
陈帅 2. 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所哈尔滨 150081 
甄怀才 1. 东北农业大学资源与环境学院哈尔滨 1500302. 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所哈尔滨 150081 
谷思玉 1. 东北农业大学资源与环境学院哈尔滨 150030 
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中文摘要:为了明晰等高垄作后对坡耕地土壤有机质的恢复作用,选取一块面积为1.4 hm2的典型黑土坡耕地,采用标准栅格法,同位大样点取样调查了改垄前和改垄10 a后土壤有机质和含水率等性状的变化。结果表明:1)与经典统计学相比,地统计学通过变程、块金值与基台值的比值以及插值绘制空间分布图,能够从全坡面更好地反映改垄前后性状的空间变化;2)等高改垄10 a后,垄台土壤含水率变程由510.7 m降低到193.2 m,块金值与基台值的比值由11.7%升至46.9%,空间相关性强度由强烈变为中等,水分再分配降低;3)耕层土壤有机质总体增加了2.61 g/kg,提升了8.4%,只在坡中上部西侧小区的部分区域降低了3.7%;4)土壤全氮含量减少了0.04 g/kg,降低了2.8%。上述结果表明,对于严重侵蚀的坡耕地,改顺坡垄为等高垄作,可弱化性状空间相关性,对土壤有机质具有恢复作用,但应适当增加化肥氮素的施用量,对东北黑土区坡耕地水土流失治理具有指导意义。
Zhai Xingyu,Zhang Xingyi,Li Hao,E Lili,Chen Shuai,Zhen Huaicai,Gu Siyu.Improving mollisols organic matter content as downslope tillage replaced by contour tillage in field scale[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering (Transactions of the CSAE),2018,34(19):155-161.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2018.19.020
Improving mollisols organic matter content as downslope tillage replaced by contour tillage in field scale
Author NameAffiliation
Zhai Xingyu 1. College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China
2. Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Harbin 150081, China 
Zhang Xingyi 2. Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Harbin 150081, China) 
Li Hao 2. Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Harbin 150081, China) 
E Lili 1. College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China
2. Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Harbin 150081, China 
Chen Shuai 2. Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Harbin 150081, China) 
Zhen Huaicai 1. College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China
2. Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Harbin 150081, China 
Gu Siyu (1. College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China
 
Key words:soils  farmland  moisture  organic matter  contour tillage  Mollisols
Abstract: The Mollisols degradation induced by water erosion is a big issue in the slope farmland of northeast China. Ridge direction as the same with contour line (contour tillage) could markedly decrease surface runoff and soil loss compared to downslope tillage, which was wildly applied to control soil erosion in the northeast of China. In order to identify the recovery of soil organic matter (SOM) under contour tillage, 102 soil samples were collected and measured in a 1.4 hm2 and 3.8° slope farmland by standard grid method in Guangrong village, Heilongjiang province, northeast China, and the soil properties such as SOM and soil water content were measured and compared before and after 10 years of contour tillage by classic statistics (CS) and geostatistics (GS) analysis. The results showed: 1) There was no difference of soil water content before and after 10 years of contour tillage by CS analysis, while GS analysis could well reveal the spatial variation of soil properties in the field before and after ridge direction changed by Range, ratio of Nugget to Sill and spatial distribution maps. 2) The Range of soil water content decreased from 510.7 to 193.2 m, which revealed the spatial heterogeneity of soil water content decreased by contour tillage, namely the water redistribution by surface runoff declined after 10 years of contour tilleage. Meanwhile the ratio of Nugget to Sill of soil water content increased from 11.7% to 46.9% indicated that the spatial autocorrelation level changed from intense to medium. 3) The soil erosion was well controlled by contour tillage in the field with the surface runoff coefficient decreased from 9.8% to 0.48%, and annual soil loss changed from 35.2 to 0.43 t/hm2. 4) The SOM in the top soil layer of 0-20 cm was increased with 2.61 g/kg and improved by 8.4%, except for a decrease of 3.7% in a small area of the west part of the middle-upper part of the slope after 10 years of contour tillage. 5) The soil total nitrogen (TN) content in the top soil layer of 0-20 cm decreased with 0.04 g/kg and reduced by 2.8%. The TN content increased in the upper slope and foot slope, as that in most part of the middle and lower slope decreased and the area amounted to 63% of the total. Therefore, in order to improve the soil fertility of degraded farmland, water and soil conservation measures are not enough, more nitrogen fertilizer should also be added properly. This study presents important references for soil and water conservation in the Mollisols slope farmland of Northeast China.
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