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王文,黄瑾,崔巍.云贵高原区干旱遥感监测中各干旱指数的应用对比[J].农业工程学报,2018,34(19):131-139.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2018.19.017
云贵高原区干旱遥感监测中各干旱指数的应用对比
投稿时间:2018-06-11  修订日期:2018-08-27
中文关键词:  蒸散  干旱  遥感  监测  实际蒸散发  潜在蒸散发  干旱指数
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(41571130071,41371050)
作者单位
王文 河海大学水文水资源与水利工程科学国家重点实验室南京 210098 
黄瑾 河海大学水文水资源与水利工程科学国家重点实验室南京 210098 
崔巍 河海大学水文水资源与水利工程科学国家重点实验室南京 210098 
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中文摘要:为从年和月尺度上监测云贵地区2000—2014年的干湿变化情况以及蒸散发在干旱中的作用,该文利用MODIS MOD16遥感观测和GLDAS数据模拟逐月实际蒸散发(ETa)与潜在蒸散发(ETp)数据,结合气象站观测降水数据计算3种干旱指数(标准化降水指数SPI,侦测干旱指数RDIst及蒸散发胁迫指数ESI),通过Mann-Kendall趋势检验方法分析了云贵地区近15 a的干湿变化特征,并以2009—2010年西南干旱为例来分析干旱期间蒸散发的作用。结果表明:1)2000—2014年云南中部存在明显的干旱化现象;2)云贵地区2009—2010年干旱期间,ETa和ETp在干旱发展前期的作用较小,但在干旱的演变过程中,逐渐对干旱有加剧作用,其中ETa比ETp对干旱的影响时间更长;3)干旱指数SPI和RDIst受控于降水量的变化,一致反映云贵地区2009—2010年严重干旱的准确发生时间为2009-09—2010-02,而基于ETa和ETp的干旱指数ESI则显示云贵地区干旱发生在2009-11—2010-06,更符合实际干旱演变情况,说明同时考虑ETa和ETp的干旱指数比考虑单一蒸散发因素的干旱指数在监测干旱方面更有效。该研究为提高气象干旱监测可靠性提供了参考。
Wang Wen,Huang Jin,Cui Wei.Comparison of drought indices for remote sensing drought monitoring in Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau region[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering (Transactions of the CSAE),2018,34(19):131-139.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2018.19.017
Comparison of drought indices for remote sensing drought monitoring in Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau region
Author NameAffiliation
Wang Wen State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China 
Huang Jin State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China 
Cui Wei State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China 
Key words:evapotranspiration  drought  remote sensing  ?monitoring  actual evapotranspiration  potential evapotranspiration  drought index
Abstract: Many studies have shown that drought severity is increasing over Yunnan-Guizhou (YG) region in southwestern China. And some studies stated that the deficit of precipitation was the main reason to recent droughts in southwestern China. Although precipitation is the main influence factor of drought formation, many studies have shown that evapotranspiration also plays a vital role in the progress of drought evolution. But how actual and potential evapotranspiration affect drought evolution is not well understood. In order to evaluate the temporal and spatial variations of the climate aridity in recent years as well as the roles of evapotranspiration in drought development in the YG region, monthly actual evapotranspiration and potential evapotranspiration data products during 2000-2014, including satellite-retrieved MODIS MOD16 data and GLDAS-Noah model simulation as well as the observed precipitation data were used to calculate 3 meteorological drought indices, i.e., standardized precipitation index (SPI), standardized reconnaissance drought index (RDIst) and evaporative stress index (ESI). With the Mann-Kendall trend test method, the 15-year temporal variations of SPI, RDIst and ESI in YG region are investigated. Besides, the severe drought that happened during 2009-2010 in YG region is further investigated as an example to analyze the role of actual evapotranspiration and potential evapotranspiration in drought evolution. According to the spatial distribution of annual average precipitation and the trend test results of 12-month SPI, there is a remarkable downtrend in middle Yunnan with an area of 12945 km2, indicating that areas with low annual precipitation are getting drier. The spatial patterns of trend tests for RDIst calculated based on different potential evapotranspiration are similar, consistent with that of SPI trend test result, both implying that there is a very significant drying trend in middle Yunnan and a slight drying in its surrounding areas, and the significant drying trend in the middle Yunnan is mainly controlled by the changes of precipitation. In terms of the trend of ESI, its spatial distributions based on MOD16 and GLDAS-Noah evapotranspiration data show great differences, but they both indicate an obvious drying trend in central Yunnan, which is similar to that of SPI and RDIst. Trend analyses of all 3 drought indices show that, the climate aridity in Guizhou Province is stable, while there is a considerable drying trend in middle Yunnan because of the joint effects of significant decline of precipitation and the remarkable increase of potential evapotranspiration. As the regional drying is not only controlled by the changes of precipitation but also affected by the changes of evapotranspiration, drying areal extents indicated by ESI and RDIst are larger than that indicated by SPI. During the 2009-2010 drought happened in YG region, actual evapotranspiration and potential evapotranspiration played little roles at the early stage, but with the evolution of drought, they greatly aggravated drought situations at the late stage. At the end of drought when precipitation returned to its normal condition, potential evapotranspiration kept positively biased for about 1-3 months, whereas actual evapotranspiration kept negatively biased for about 5 months, illustrating that actual evapotranspiration has a longer effect on drought evolution than potential evapotranspiration. The analysis of 2009-2010 severe drought also indicates the effectiveness of different drought indices, that is, ESI considers both actual and potential evapotranspiration, and is more reasonable than SPI and RDIst for monitoring drought evolution. So it can be concluded that when accurate actual evapotranspiration data are available, drought indices based on both actual evapotranspiration and potential evapotranspiration are preferable to those based on only potential evapotranspiration for drought monitoring. Unfortunately, there is a lack of reliable actual evapotranspiration products available most of time while there exist many widely used methods for potential evapotranspiration calculation, therefore when actual evapotranspiration products are not available, a practical option is using drought indices that take potential evapotranspiration into account.
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