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李长友.粮食干燥传递和转换特征及其理论表达[J].农业工程学报,2018,34(19):1-8.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2018.19.001
粮食干燥传递和转换特征及其理论表达
投稿时间:2018-07-29  修订日期:2018-08-30
中文关键词:  粮食  干燥  效率    传递  能效评价
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(31671783,31371871);广东省科技计划项目(2014B020207001)李长友
作者单位
李长友 华南农业大学工程学院, 广州 510642 
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中文摘要:干燥是不同物系间多场协同作用的复合系统,期间发生的?传递和转换特征尚未揭示,工程应用存在不同场间的耦合关系及其作用效果定量表达的理论空缺。为此,该文基于?分析法,解析粮食与干燥介质间的?传递和转换特征,给出热?、流动?,扩散?及其?效率定量评价理论表达式,基于焓-含湿量状态参数图,分析干燥系统状态参数间的内在联系及相互制约关系。研究结果表明,干燥是热?、扩散?和流动?同时作用的结果,热?是水分汽化必须的有用能;扩散?源于粮食中多余的水分,扩散?效率取决于水蒸气的状态,在扩散过程中,温度场和压力场同时存在,温度梯度与水蒸汽压差方向相反时,强化?效率,一致时则弱化?效率;流动?维持了热?和扩散?传递所需的势差,没有流动?的存在和消耗,热?和湿?的传递则不能有效进行;在通风干燥系统中,含湿粮食和干燥介质是两种不同物系,两种物系之间存在的不平衡势是干燥?传递和转换的动力;干燥可以归结为含湿粮食趋向系统介质状态点的?传递和转换的过程;指出了?及?效率都是状态函数,在工程应用时,引入时间坐标,依据环境状态参数和粮食在特定系统中的状态变化特性,可以揭示出?流密度及其?效率变化特征,进而对其能量利用效果做出评价;通过系统的?理论表达及其?效率分析,可以清晰地呈现干燥系统最大?损部位及环节,为评价干燥系统能量利用水平提供了科学的依据,为干燥工艺系统优化指明了能量合理利用的技术途径。
Li Changyou.Theoretical analysis of exergy transfer and conversionin grain drying process[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering (Transactions of the CSAE),2018,34(19):1-8.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2018.19.001
Theoretical analysis of exergy transfer and conversionin grain drying process
Author NameAffiliation
Li Changyou College of Engineering, South China Agricultural University,Guangzhou, P.R.China 510642, China 
Key words:grain  drying  efficiency  exergy  exergy transfer  energy efficiency evaluation
Abstract: The exergy is defined as the maximum useful work possibly during a thermal dynamic process that brings the system into equilibrium. Analysis of exergy utilization provides a fair and effective method for evaluating the energy efficiency. Since drying is a comprehensive process involving complicated interaction among different materials, exergy analysis is especially helpful in rating the efficiency of different drying strategies. However, the mechanism behind the exergy transfer and conversion during drying has not yet been fully investigated and understood. At present, the lack of theoretical analysis is hindering the implementation and progress of the sophisticated applications. The theoretical difficulties include the quantitative understanding and expression of the coupling effects in different exergies. In this article, we analyzed the exergy transfer and conversion between grain and drying medium. In a drying process, the ultimate goal is to reduce the moisture content in the grain until it is in the dryness that is the same as the environment where the grain is stored. Therefore, we define exergy as zero when the system is in equilibrium with the ambient environment. Based on the comprehensive coupling of the potential energy difference, temperature gradient and pressure gradient, the theoretical models of thermal exergy, flow exergy, diffusion exergy and exergy efficiency are given. We also studied the relationships and restrictions of different exergies based on the enthalpy-moisture diagram. Our results revealed that drying is the result of the simultaneous action of thermal exergy, diffusion exergy and flow exergy. The conversion and transfer of thermal exergy can be directly characterized by water vaporization, which is driven by the temperature gradient in the system. Most of the thermal exergy is directly converted to the latent heat of evaporation. Regardless of the number and type of the heat sources, thermal exergy transfer is always directly related to the temperature gradient of the drying system. Diffusion exergy originates from the excess water in grain. The vapor pressure difference between the wet grain and the drying medium will naturally drive the water transfer, making the wet grain to dry medium. The temperature gradient and pressure gradient both have important effects on the diffusion process. When the temperature gradient is opposite to the vapor pressure gradient, the exergy efficiency is enhanced; otherwise, the exergy efficiency is weakened. The flow exergy maintains the potential difference necessary for the transfer of heat exergy and diffusion exergy. Without flow exergy, the transfer of heat and wet exergy cannot be effectively carried out. In a ventilation and drying system, the exergy difference between the wet grain and drying medium is the driving force behind the drying process. Drying can be summarized as the process of exergy transfer and conversion, converting physical conditions of wet grain into to conditions of the drying medium. Different from isolated systems, the thermal equilibrium of a drying process is determined by the ambient environment which is always static regardless of the size of energy and mass transfer. The drying process still follows the second law of thermodynamics. However, the entropy increase of the ambient environment is negligible. The thermal exergy, diffusion exergy and flow exergy can all be expressed in state functions. We provided time-dependent state functions of exergy and exergy efficiency to reveal the change of exergy flow density and efficiency according to the environmental conditions and the conditions of the grain. These theoretical models can be applied to make fair and reasonable evaluation on the energy utilization in practical applications. Based on the theoretical analyses of exergy and its efficiency, the largest exergy loss process can be predicted and prevented. These models provide a scientific basis for evaluating the energy utilization in a drying system, and can be used to optimize the drying process.
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