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万红兵,祁兴磊,李海鹏,王欢,雷元华,张松山,谢鹏,刘璇,孙宝忠.加热温度和时间对牛肉嫩度影响的主成分分析评价[J].农业工程学报,2018,34(13):303-310.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2018.13.037
加热温度和时间对牛肉嫩度影响的主成分分析评价
投稿时间:2018-04-17  修订日期:2018-05-28
中文关键词:  主成分分析  质构  温度  牛肉  嫩度  评价
基金项目:国家肉牛牦牛产业技术体系项目(CARS-37)
作者单位
万红兵 1. 中国农业科学院北京畜牧兽医研究所北京 100193
 
祁兴磊 2. 泌阳县夏南牛科技开发有限公司驻马店 463700
 
李海鹏 1. 中国农业科学院北京畜牧兽医研究所北京 100193
 
王欢 1. 中国农业科学院北京畜牧兽医研究所北京 100193
 
雷元华 1. 中国农业科学院北京畜牧兽医研究所北京 100193
 
张松山 1. 中国农业科学院北京畜牧兽医研究所北京 100193
 
谢鹏 1. 中国农业科学院北京畜牧兽医研究所北京 100193
 
刘璇 1. 中国农业科学院北京畜牧兽医研究所北京 100193
 
孙宝忠 1. 中国农业科学院北京畜牧兽医研究所北京 100193
 
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中文摘要:为研究加热温度及时间对不同部位牛肉嫩度的影响,该研究以夏南牛肩肉、外脊和米龙3个部位肉为例,分别代表牛胴体前、中、后躯部位肉,提出了一种基于主成分分析的高熟度牛肉嫩度综合评价方法。利用剪切力测定法和质构剖面分析测定了6头夏南牛3个部位(肩肉、外脊、米龙)4个加热温度(70、80、90、100 ℃)6个保温时间(0、30、60、90、120、180 min)的剪切力值和质构指标,对不同加热处理牛肉的蒸煮损失、剪切力值、硬度、黏附性、弹性、内聚性、胶着性、咀嚼性和回复性等9个指标进行主成分分析,从中提取了3个主成分,方差贡献率分别为56.53%、24.43%、8.62%,分别代表牛肉的咀嚼特性、抗压特性和剪切特性,累积方差贡献率达89.58%,并建立了综合评价模型。试验结果表明,在高熟度牛肉的评价过程中,以剪切力值作为主要载荷的第3主成分在肉品嫩度综合评价中仅占很小的比例,并不能代表肉品嫩度的全部信息,因此不能把剪切力值作为高熟度牛肉嫩度评价的主要指标,在评价过程中应综合考虑与内聚性、胶着性、咀嚼性和回复性等与肉品质地相关的指标进行分析评价;加热温度和时间对牛肉嫩度综合得分影响较大,当肉块中心温度小于80 ℃时,随着加热时间的延长,牛肉嫩度综合得分整体变化比较平稳;而当肉块中心温度高于80 ℃时,随着加热时间的延长,牛肉嫩度品质综合得分整体呈下降趋势,且中心温度越高,加热时间越长,得分值越低。运用主成分分析减少了牛肉嫩度品质的评价指标,简化评价流程,为高熟度牛肉嫩度评价提供理论依据。
Wan Hongbing,Qi Xinglei,Li Haipeng,Wang Huan,Lei Yuanhua,Zhang Songshan,Xie Peng,Liu Xuan,Sun Baozhong.Evaluation of effects of heating temperature and time on tenderness of beef based on principal component analysis[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering (Transactions of the CSAE),2018,34(13):303-310.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2018.13.037
Evaluation of effects of heating temperature and time on tenderness of beef based on principal component analysis
Author NameAffiliation
Wan Hongbing 1. Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
 
Qi Xinglei 2. Biyang Xianan Cattle Science and Technology Development Co., Ltd, Zhumadian 463700, China
 
Li Haipeng 1. Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
 
Wang Huan 1. Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
 
Lei Yuanhua 1. Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
 
Zhang Songshan 1. Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
 
Xie Peng 1. Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
 
Liu Xuan 1. Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
 
Sun Baozhong 1. Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
 
Key words:principal component analysis  texture  temperature  beef  tenderness  evaluation
Abstract:Thermal processing of meat is an essential step in meat industry, which turns raw meat into edible meat. Beef with high degree of doneness is the main form of beef consumption in China. In order to solve the problem that the cooking temperature and central temperature of beef with high degree of doneness are not consistent with the shear force method (NY/T 1180-2006), in this study, a comprehensive evaluation method of tenderness of beef with high degree of doneness was proposed based on principal component analysis (PCA), taking 3 parts of Xianan cattle i.e. shoulder, strip loin and topside as examples, representing the meat of front, middle and hindquarters of cattle, respectively. Nine texture indices including cooking loss, shear force, hardness, adhesiveness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness and resilience were studied by PCA to evaluate the tenderness quality of the shoulder, strip loin, and topside parts of 6 Xianan cattle, treated at different temperatures (70, 80, 90 and 100 ℃) and time (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min) by using SAS (statistical analysis system) software. Three principal components were extracted, and the contribution rates of variance were 56.53%, 24.43%, 8.62% respectively, which represented the mastication, compression and shear characteristics of beef, respectively. The cumulative contribution rate of variance was 89.58%, and a comprehensive evaluation model was established. The results showed that the third principal component with shear force as the main load accounted for only a small proportion in the comprehensive evaluation of meat tenderness, which did not represent all the information of meat tenderness in the tenderness evaluation process of beef with high degree of doneness. Therefore, the shear force should not be regarded as the main variable for evaluating the tenderness of beef with high degree of doneness. The indices related to the texture of meat should be comprehensively considered in the evaluation process. The comprehensive score results showed that the heating temperature and time significantly affected the comprehensive score. When the center temperature of meat was less than 80 ℃, with the extension of time, the score of beef tenderness was stable, and when the center temperature was more than 80 ℃, the score decreased. And for the same meat, the higher the center temperature, the longer the duration, the lower the score. The use of PCA can reduce the number of texture indices, and make the evaluation process simplified, and it provides theoretical reference for the tenderness evaluation of beef with high degree of doneness.
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