首页 | 简介 | 作者 | 编者 | 读者 | Ei(光盘版)收录本刊数据 | 网络预印版 | 点击排行前100篇 | English
吕雯,孙兆军,陈小莉,赵西宁,高晓东,吴普特.地膜秸秆复合覆盖改善龟裂碱土水盐特性提高油葵产量[J].农业工程学报,2018,34(13):125-133.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2018.13.015
地膜秸秆复合覆盖改善龟裂碱土水盐特性提高油葵产量
投稿时间:2017-04-15  修订日期:2018-05-23
中文关键词:  地膜  秸秆  土壤  复合覆盖  土壤水盐  产量  降水利用效率
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(41571506、51579212),国家重点研发计划(2016YFC0400204),国家林业公益性行业科研重大专项(201504402),陕西省科技统筹创新工程项目(2015KTCL02-25、2016KTZDNY-01-03)。
作者单位
吕雯 1. 西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所杨凌 712100
2. 宁夏大学环境工程研究院银川 750021
3.宁夏<中阿>旱区资源评价与环境调控重点实验室银川 750021
 
孙兆军 2. 宁夏大学环境工程研究院银川 750021
3.宁夏<中阿>旱区资源评价与环境调控重点实验室银川 750021
 
陈小莉 4. 西北农林科技大学农学院杨凌 712100
 
赵西宁 1. 西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所杨凌 712100
 
高晓东 1. 西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所杨凌 712100
 
吴普特 1. 西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所杨凌 712100
 
摘要点击次数: 205
全文下载次数: 53
中文摘要:为了提高盐碱地降水利用率,抑制化学(脱硫石膏)改良碱土过程中土壤盐分表聚及板结问题,该文以宁夏平罗县西大滩盐碱地试验站为例,设置了地膜秸秆复合覆盖(plastic and straw dual mulching,PSM)、地膜覆盖(plastic film mulching,PM)、秸秆覆盖(straw mulching,SM)和无覆盖常规种植(no mulching,CK)4个处理,探讨改良龟裂碱土过程中不同覆盖措施下旱地油葵的土壤水盐结构特征及其对产量的影响。结果表明,PSM处理有效提高了30~100 cm土层土壤贮水、持水能力,推迟油葵消耗相对深层60~100 cm土壤水分的时间;在30~90 cm 土层,其水分活跃性显著高于其他处理;比单一覆盖抑盐效果佳,土壤盐分缓冲性增强,盐分表聚程度显著降低;同时能显著降低土壤容重,提高土壤孔隙度。PSM处理提高了油葵苗期存活率和产量,其较PM、SM处理和CK分别增产35.45%,120.15%,87.80%(P<0.05);PSM处理较PM、SM处理和CK的降水利用效率分别提高了14.71%、86.45%和59.05%(P<0.05),其水分利用效率分别比SM和CK提高了10.80%和32.71%。综上,地膜秸秆复合覆盖(PSM)可增强土壤保墒抑盐能力,改善作物根区土壤水盐环境,提高天然降水的生产潜力;促进碱土改良初期的保苗增产,提高经济效益。
Lü Wen,Sun Zhaojun,Chen Xiaoli,Zhao Xining,Gao Xiaodong,Wu Pute.Plastic film and straw combined mulchingimproving water and salt characteristics of Takyr Solonetzs and yield of oil sunflower[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering (Transactions of the CSAE),2018,34(13):125-133.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2018.13.015
Plastic film and straw combined mulchingimproving water and salt characteristics of Takyr Solonetzs and yield of oil sunflower
Author NameAffiliation
Lü Wen 1. Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
2. Institute of Environmental Engineering, Ningxia University, Yingchuan 750021, China
3. Ningxia (China-Arab) Key Laboratory of Resources Assessment and Environmental Regulation in Arid Regions, Yinchuan 750021, China
 
Sun Zhaojun 2. Institute of Environmental Engineering, Ningxia University, Yingchuan 750021, China
3. Ningxia (China-Arab) Key Laboratory of Resources Assessment and Environmental Regulation in Arid Regions, Yinchuan 750021, China
 
Chen Xiaoli 4. College of Architecture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
 
Zhao Xining 1. Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
 
Gao Xiaodong 1. Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
 
Wu Pute 1. Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
 
Key words:plastic film  straw  soils  combined mulch  soil water and salt  yield  precipitation use efficiency
Abstract:Saline alkali wasteland and low-yield fields are important reserve of cultivated land in China. The chemical methods of industrial waste desulphurization gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) have achieved certain results and good environmental protection benefits at the aspect of improving alkaline soil. Scarce water resource, soil hardening and salt concentration in early improvement are still the key factors that restrict the development of agricultural production in chapped alkali soil by using waste desulfurization gypsum from power plant. In order to improve rainfall utilization efficiency, and restrain the problems of salt aggregation on soil surface and soil compaction in the process of chemical improvement of alkaline soil, a field experiment was conducted, which included 3 soil surface mulching methods: combined mulching of plastic film and straw (the straw was firstly used, then covered with mulching film, and later seeding was conducted artificially; the aperture was 4 cm, and the straw mulch was restored at the orifice after sowing), plastic film mulching (white transparent polyethylene film, width of 2 m, thickness of 0.02 mm), and straw mulching (spring wheat straw, length of 8-12 cm, coverage amount of 0.6 kg/m2). The experiment included 4 treatments: plastic film and straw combined mulching (PSM), plastic film mulching (PM), straw mulching (SM) and conventional tillage (CK), which were designed to explore the dynamic structure characteristics of soil water salt and its effect on yield of oil sunflower (Helianthus annuus) at Pingluo saline-soil Experimental Station in Ningxia. The soil moisture contents at the depth of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 cm were measured; soil salt contents and soil bulk densities of different soil depth profiles (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 cm) were measured for different treatments. And the results showed that: The PSM treatment effectively improved the water storage and water holding capacity of 30-100 cm soil layer. It delayed the time of oil sunflower consuming the moisture in 60-100 cm soil depth. The water activity in the 30-90 cm soil layer under PSM treatment was higher than that of other single coverage models. Salt accumulation on soil surface was delayed to the later stage of crop growth, and its level was significantly lower than the other 3 treatments, reducing the toxicity of soil salinity in early salt-sensitive growth period of crops compared with single coverage and conventional planting. The combined mulch promoted the improvement of soil structure with relatively low soil bulk density and higher soil porosity, which is beneficial to improve soil effective water storage capacity and accelerate the process of leaching. The PSM treatment improved survival rate and yield of oil sunflower in seedling stage. The precipitation use efficiency under the PSM treatment was increased by 14.71%, 86.45% and 59.05% respectively compared with the PM, SM and CK treatments, and the water use efficiency was increased by 10.80% and 32.71%, respectively, compared with the SM and CK treatments. Therefore, the plastic film and straw combined mulch can improve soil structure, which is beneficial to enhance soil effective water storage capacity and accelerate the process of leaching.
查看全文   下载PDF阅读器

京ICP备06025802号-3

主办单位:中国农业工程学会 单位地址:北京朝阳区麦子店街41号

服务热线:010-59197076、59197077 传真: 邮编:100125 Email:tcsae@tcsae.org
本系统由北京勤云科技发展有限公司设计

京公网安备 11010502031390号