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何勇,肖舒裴,方慧,董涛,唐宇,聂鹏程,吴剑坚,骆少明.植保无人机施药喷嘴的发展现状及其施药决策[J].农业工程学报,2018,34(13):113-124.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2018.13.014
植保无人机施药喷嘴的发展现状及其施药决策
投稿时间:2018-01-14  修订日期:2018-04-04
中文关键词:  无人机  农药  喷嘴  分类  雾滴测量手段  喷嘴选型  施药决策
基金项目:国家重点研发计划课题(2016YFD0200701)
作者单位
何勇 1. 浙江大学生物系统工程与食品科学学院杭州 310058
 
肖舒裴 1. 浙江大学生物系统工程与食品科学学院杭州 310058
 
方慧 1. 浙江大学生物系统工程与食品科学学院杭州 310058
 
董涛 1. 浙江大学生物系统工程与食品科学学院杭州 310058
 
唐宇 2. 仲恺农业工程学院自动化学院广州 510225
 
聂鹏程 1. 浙江大学生物系统工程与食品科学学院杭州 310058
 
吴剑坚 1. 浙江大学生物系统工程与食品科学学院杭州 310058
 
骆少明 2. 仲恺农业工程学院自动化学院广州 510225
 
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中文摘要:农药的低利用率是影响农业生态环境和农产品品质安全的重要原因之一,优化农药喷施技术是提高农药利用率的有效手段。无人机植保喷施作业作为航空施药领域的重要组成部分,因其应对突发灾害能力强、不受作业地点限制等优势,具有巨大的发展潜力。喷嘴作为植保无人机喷施系统中的关键部件,主要分为液力雾化喷嘴和离心雾化喷嘴两大类,良好的喷嘴性能能够大大提升航空施药喷洒的均匀性,提高农药的利用效率。该文总结了各类植保无人机常用喷嘴的原理、特点以及应用场合,提出了喷嘴性能评价指标并总结了三大类常用的雾滴粒径、沉积量、分布、速度等指标的测量手段,包括雾滴收集方法,雾滴沉积量测试方法以及仪器测量法。最后,针对目前无人机施药缺乏专业的指导,农药喷施效果有待提升的现状,该文提出合理的施药决策是结合靶标作物、喷药需求以及喷施环境三方面因素共同作用的结果,并从喷嘴喷雾角、防堵塞性、喷嘴压力与流量以及最佳作业粒径4个方面分析了喷嘴选型的思路,从专业喷嘴选型决策系统的建立以及无人机植保专用喷嘴的研发两方面对今后的研究进行展望。
He Yong,Xiao Shupei,Fang Hui,Dong Tao,Tang Yu,Nie Pengcheng,Wu Jianjian,Luo Shaoming.Development situation and spraying decision of spray nozzle for plant protection UAV[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering (Transactions of the CSAE),2018,34(13):113-124.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2018.13.014
Development situation and spraying decision of spray nozzle for plant protection UAV
Author NameAffiliation
He Yong 1. College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
 
Xiao Shupei 1. College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
 
Fang Hui 1. College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
 
Dong Tao 1. College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
 
Tang Yu 2. College of Automation, Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou 510225, China
 
Nie Pengcheng 1. College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
 
Wu Jianjian 1. College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
 
Luo Shaoming 2. College of Automation, Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou 510225, China
 
Key words:unmanned aerial vehicle  pesticide  nozzles  classification  droplet measurement means  nozzle selection  spray decision
Abstract:The low utilization rate of pesticides is one of the important factors that affect the agricultural ecological environment as well as the quality and safety of agricultural products, while optimizing pesticide spraying technology is an effective means to improve the pesticide utilization rate. As one of the most important components in the aerial pesticide application in the field, UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) spraying has developed rapidly with advantages of strong flexibility, high spraying efficiency and fast operation speed. As a key component of aviation spraying system, nozzle for UAV plant protection is mainly divided into 2 categories, i.e. the hydraulic atomization nozzle and the centrifugal atomization nozzle. The common used hydraulic atomization nozzle mainly contains fan nozzle and cone nozzle, and fan nozzle has various types and has been applied more widely. The centrifugal atomization nozzle has an adjustable droplet size with better anti-blocking performance, but the high price and low droplet penetration have restrained its fast development. Besides, the good performance of nozzle can greatly improve the uniformity of the aerial spraying and reduce droplet drift, enhancing the pesticide utilization efficiency. Thus this paper put forward the nozzle performance evaluation index, which included the nozzle type, spray angle, volume median diameter (VMD), features and applications. Beyond this, the amount of droplet deposition, coverage rate and droplet distribution are important indices to evaluate the spray performance. Therefore, the measuring methods of droplets were summarized from 3 aspects, including droplet collection method, droplet deposition test method and instrument test method. Among them, the droplet collection method included magnesium oxide plate method, silicon oil method and test paper method; the droplet deposition test method included colorant method and fluorescent particle tracing method; the instrument test method included phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA), particle/droplet image analyzer (PDIA) and laser diffraction analyzer. The traditional droplet size measurement methods such as magnesium oxide plate method and silicon oil method are gradually replaced by paper card method, which is widely used in the measurement of droplet coverage and distribution. The colorant method and fluorescent particle tracing method are widely used in the measurement of droplet deposition, and the instrument measurement method has the advantages of high precision and large amount of information, which can play a great role in indoor experiment. However, the nozzle selection for UAV plant protection often refers to the ground machinery, which lacks standard and professional guidance. The problems of droplet drift and pesticide loss exist in the application of UAV spray, and the utilization rate of pesticides needs to be improved. On this basis, this paper proposed that the rational spray decision should be based on the comprehensive analysis of target crop, spraying demand and spraying environment condition. The target crops information covers crop growth, leaf surface properties and leaf inclination; the spraying demands mainly refer to the determination of appropriate pesticides, dosage forms and adjuvants according to the control objectives of disease control, pest control or weeding; the influence of environmental factors mainly refers to the evaporation and drift of droplets caused by the changes of temperature, humidity, wind speed and wind direction. As the field environment is an uncontrollable environment, it is necessary to develop a selection scheme for the spraying characteristics of high concentration and low capacity for UAV, aiming at the best deposition effect and least droplet drift. Under the influence of spray equipment, target crops and pesticide application environment, the interaction between those factors determines the selection of optimal nozzle and spraying parameters. In this paper, spray angle, anti-blocking requirement, optimum droplet size, nozzle pressure and flow rate are the crucial points for nozzle selection. Finally, the further research is prospected from 2 aspects: the establishment of the specialized nozzle determination system and the research and development of the specialized nozzle for plant protection of UAV.
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