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韩长杰,徐阳,张静,尤佳,郭辉.半自动压缩基质型西瓜钵苗移栽机设计与试验[J].农业工程学报,2018,34(13):54-61.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2018.13.007
半自动压缩基质型西瓜钵苗移栽机设计与试验
投稿时间:2017-11-04  修订日期:2018-04-04
中文关键词:  机械化  设计  移栽  压缩基质  钵苗  试验
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(50905153,51565059);"十三五"国家重点研发计划(2017YFD0700803-2);2017年自治区农业科技推广与服务项目
作者单位
韩长杰 新疆农业大学机电工程学院乌鲁木齐 830052 
徐阳 新疆农业大学机电工程学院乌鲁木齐 830052 
张静 新疆农业大学机电工程学院乌鲁木齐 830052 
尤佳 新疆农业大学机电工程学院乌鲁木齐 830052 
郭辉 新疆农业大学机电工程学院乌鲁木齐 830052 
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中文摘要:针对目前使用压缩基质培育的钵苗无法使用现有移栽机械完成栽植工作的问题,模仿人工先打穴后放苗的移栽方式,设计了一种半自动压缩基质型钵苗移栽机,包含有间歇式打穴装置、持苗栽植装置和钵苗输送装置。通过单因素试验测得2组不同含水率的西瓜钵苗的钵体侧面与滑道的摩擦系数分别为0.755、0.634,并分析了2组钵体抗压载荷与压缩量之间的关系。根据西瓜种植农艺要求及西瓜钵苗外形尺寸,确定了打穴器及钵苗夹持机构的结构尺寸。按照已知运动规律对摆动机构进行优化设计,阐述了持苗栽植装置的工作过程,使用解析法对其进行了运动分析。试验结果表明,拖拉机保持2.1~2.6 km/h的速度前进时,该机作业的平均株距为98.6 cm,株距合格率为90.62%;倒伏率为21.9%,能够基本满足西瓜钵苗移栽的要求。该研究为半自动压缩基质型西瓜钵苗移栽机的设计提供了参考。
Han Changjie,Xu Yang,Zhang Jing,You Jia,Guo Hui.Design and experiment of semi-automatic transplanter for watermelon seedlings raised on compression substrate[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering (Transactions of the CSAE),2018,34(13):54-61.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2018.13.007
Design and experiment of semi-automatic transplanter for watermelon seedlings raised on compression substrate
Author NameAffiliation
Han Changjie College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi 830052, China 
Xu Yang College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi 830052, China 
Zhang Jing College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi 830052, China 
You Jia College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi 830052, China 
Guo Hui College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi 830052, China 
Key words:mechanization  design  transplants  compressed substrate  seedlings  test
Abstract:In order to solve the problem that seedlings cultivated by pie-shaped compression matrix can not be planted by the existing transplanter, a semi-automatic compression matrix seedling transplanter was designed in this paper by mimicking the artificially transplanting method of putting seedlings after punching a hole. The compression matrix type seedling transplanter mainly consists of a ground wheel, a swing mechanism, a ratchet wheel, a hole puncher, a displacement mechanism, a seedling clamping mechanism, a conveying device, a transmission system, a rack, and so on. The physical dimensions and mechanical properties of the compression matrix type seedling are the key basis for the design of the seedling planting schemes and structures. Taking watermelon seedlings as the research object, the dimensions of the seedlings were measured, and the friction coefficient of the compression matrix with different water contents and the compressive strength of the compression matrix were determined. The coefficients of friction between the slideways and the flanks of watermelon seedlings with 2 groups of different water contents were determined to be 0.755 and 0.634 respectively by single-factor tests. The relationship between the compression load and the compression amount of the 2 groups was also analyzed. When the load is 0-5 N, as the surface of the seedling is in point contact with the semi-circular thin metal at the initial stage of compression, the compression load increases evenly and the amount increases rapidly. When the load is between 5 and 20 N, as the surface of the seedling is in surface contact with the semi-circular thin metal, the compression load increases evenly with less impact on compression. When the load is greater than 25 N, some external cracks are observed on the surface of the seeding during the test. Comparing the 2 tests, it can be seen that the seedling with high water content is not easily destroyed. The swing mechanism is optimized according to the known movement law of the initial angle of the crank and the output angle of the driven rod. The dimensions of optimized parts are 57, 161, 79 and 170 mm, respectively. When the crank rotates one revolution of 360°, the reciprocating swing angle of the driven rod is 92.3°, which satisfies the working requirements of the four-equal-part ratchet wheel mechanism. The structure and specific size parameters of the hole puncher are determined according to the measurement size and planting depth requirements of the watermelon seedling. The width of the edge surface is 1.5 mm. The inner diameter of the small end is 64 mm, and the height of the tapered part of the hole puncher is 65 mm, and when the incision angle is 21°, the inner diameter of the big end is about 114 mm. The structure parameters of the seedling clamping mechanism are determined according to the mechanical properties and the dimension of watermelon seedling. And it is also concluded that the seedling's matrix can overcome the self-gravity of the seedling, which ensures that the seedling clamping mechanism can securely grip the seedlings when transplanting with a clamping force of 26 N. The seedling conveying device and the planting holding device are driven by the same power source, ensuring that the feeding speed of the seedlings is synchronized with taking seedling action of the planting holding device. The conveyor belt is used to transport the seedlings, and the conveyor belt was designed to send seedlings at a speed of 40 plants per minute. Using a compression matrix for field planting functional verification tests, the average plant spacing is 98.6 cm when the transplanter moves at a stable speed of 2.1-2.6 km/h. The pass rate of the plant spacing is 90.62% and the lodging rate is 21.9% which is slightly higher. In the follow-up study, dual-ground-wheel driving would be used to improve the reliability of the transmission and obtain uniform spacing; a hole shape with the same level and the same depth should be acquired, and the lodging rate after the landing of pie-shaped matrix would be reduced by increasing the copying mechanism and optimizing the shape and structural parameters of the hole puncher.
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