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赵立新,张增辉,王成义,荐世春,刘童,崔东云,丁筱玲.基于变距光电传感器的小麦精播施肥一体机监测系统设计[J].农业工程学报,2018,34(13):27-34.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2018.13.004
基于变距光电传感器的小麦精播施肥一体机监测系统设计
投稿时间:2017-12-12  修订日期:2018-04-04
中文关键词:  监测  设计  传感器  精播施肥机  变距  MCGS触摸屏
基金项目:山东省农机装备研发创新计划项目(2015YZ103);山东省农业重大应用技术创新项目(SNZY31955);山东农业大学现代农业智能化装备研发项目(SDAU24131)
作者单位
赵立新 1. 山东农业大学机械与电子工程学院泰安 271018
 
张增辉 1. 山东农业大学机械与电子工程学院泰安 271018
 
王成义 2. 山东农业大学信息科学与工程学院泰安 271018
 
荐世春 3. 山东省农业机械科学研究院济南 250100
 
刘童 1. 山东农业大学机械与电子工程学院泰安 271018
 
崔东云 1. 山东农业大学机械与电子工程学院泰安 271018
 
丁筱玲 1. 山东农业大学机械与电子工程学院泰安 271018
 
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中文摘要:为实现小麦精播施肥过程的实时监测,确保播种作业质量,该文设计了一种基于变距光电传感器的小麦精播施肥一体机监测系统。该监测系统以STM32单片机硬件系统为下位机,通过反射式光电传感器和旋转编码器分别获取种肥流动与种肥轴转动信息,判断精播机运行状态,并通过Modbus通讯协议将信息传输至MCGS触摸屏上位机人机交互界面实时显示。下位机排种监测电路仿真测试结果表明,放大电路对种管光电传感器检测距离的改变值为4~7 mm;上下位机通讯测试结果表明,数据传输内容准确率为100%;监测系统样机试验测试结果表明,故障报警准确率≥92.5%,种肥缺失、堵塞、泄漏响应时间分别≤0.2、≤0.3、≤0.3 s。该监测系统实现了对小麦精播施肥机作业的实时高精度监测,有助于提高小麦精播机作业质量。
Zhao Lixin,Zhang Zenghui,Wang Chengyi,Jian Shichun,Liu Tong,Cui Dongyun,Ding Xiaoling.Design of monitoring system for wheat precision seeding-fertilizing machine based on variable distance photoelectric sensor[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering (Transactions of the CSAE),2018,34(13):27-34.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2018.13.004
Design of monitoring system for wheat precision seeding-fertilizing machine based on variable distance photoelectric sensor
Author NameAffiliation
Zhao Lixin 1. Mechanical & Electronic Engineering College, Shandong Agricultural University Tai'an 271018, China
 
Zhang Zenghui 1. Mechanical & Electronic Engineering College, Shandong Agricultural University Tai'an 271018, China
 
Wang Chengyi 2. College of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University Tai'an 271018, China
 
Jian Shichun 3. Shandong Academy of Agricultural Machinery Science, Ji'nan 250100, China
 
Liu Tong 1. Mechanical & Electronic Engineering College, Shandong Agricultural University Tai'an 271018, China
 
Cui Dongyun 1. Mechanical & Electronic Engineering College, Shandong Agricultural University Tai'an 271018, China
 
Ding Xiaoling 1. Mechanical & Electronic Engineering College, Shandong Agricultural University Tai'an 271018, China
 
Key words:monitoring  design  sensor  precision seeding-fertilizing machine  variable distance  MCGS touch screen
Abstract:Precision seeding has become the main developing direction of the modern seeding technology, and the quality of seeding machine's operation will directly affect the growth and yield of wheat. Facing complex field moisture, machine vibration, noise and other unfavorable factors as well as the fully closed environment of seeds' tubes and fertilizer's tubes, only using audio-visual method is difficult to know the running status of seeder in real time. When the seeds' tubes and fertilizer's tubes are plugged or the seeds and fertilizer are lacked, it will cause the question of seedling absence in large areas, and result in yield reduction. Therefore, researching and developing the monitoring system of seeding-fertilizing machine has important significance and benefits both in producing and economy. In the early research stage of the laboratory, an electronically controlled wide wheat fertilization precision seeder was designed to achieve wide precision seeding. In order to realize the real-time monitoring of the process of wheat precision seeding-fertilizing machine and ensure the operation quality, a monitoring system with variable distance photoelectric sensor, which can realize the function of wheat precision seeding-fertilizing machine, was designed based on the previous research. The monitoring system takes the STM32 MCU (micro control unit) hardware detection system as the lower computer, and transmits the information by Modbus communication protocol to man-machine interface of MCGS (Monitor and Control Generated System) touch screen displaying real-time operation status. The lower computer uses a reflective photocell as a monitoring sensor, and determines the malfunction type by combining the information of seeds' and fertilizer's flow and shaft rotation measured by master system's rotary encoder and transferred by Modbus communication. The monitoring sensors of wheat and fertilizer were adopt OH-1021 reflective photoelectric sensor which transmitting terminal and receiving terminal distributed on the same side. When there are particles blocking infrared light, the sensors output low level; when there are no particles, the sensors output high level. The sensor output experiences a high-low-high level change process when the infrared light is reflected while the particles flow through the photoelectric sensor. It is easier to determine the operating status of the fertilizing according to the fertilizer shaft speed and the output of fertilizer sensor data collected by MCU, since the fertilizing sensor was installed under the row fertilizer device. But the seed tube with sensor was installed above the seeding device, in which the wheat particles were full and flowing slowly. The initial detection distance of the seed sensor is set as 5 mm, which is the sum of the short diameter (3 mm) of single wheat particle and the tube thickness (2 mm). In normal operation, the wheat particles reflect the infrared light when flowing through the position of seed sensor, and the sensor output experiences a high-low-high level change process. The MCU determines the operating status of the seeding according to the sensor output and seed shaft speed. During the monitoring of seeding, the type of malfunction cannot be distinguished when the infrared light is located on the gap between 2 particles on the wall of the seed tube. The MCU controls the conduction of the triode via changing the IO (Input /Output) port output by activating the variable pitch task function, and thereby controls the detection distance of the sensor. When the output of the MCU is high, the triode is turned on, then voltage of the sensor is increased, resulting in the increase of detection distance, and therefore the type of malfunctions is determined by further understanding on the seed-reserve in the seed tube. The circuit simulation test results of the lower computer's seeds' tube show that the detection distance of the photoelectric sensor of the seeds' tube is changed by 4-7 mm under the amplifier circuit; monitoring system prototype test results show that the accuracy of fault alarm at least reaches 92.5%, and the response time of lacking seeds and fertilization, blockage and leakage is less than or equal to 0.2, 0.3 and 0.3 s, respectively. The monitoring system realizes high-precision real-time monitoring of wheat seeding and it can improve the quality of wheat seeding.
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