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祝清震,武广伟,陈立平,孟志军,史江涛,赵春江.基于旋耕覆土的冬小麦基肥分层定深施用装置设计[J].农业工程学报,2018,34(13):18-26.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2018.13.003
基于旋耕覆土的冬小麦基肥分层定深施用装置设计
投稿时间:2018-03-05  修订日期:2018-05-20
中文关键词:  农业机械  设计  旋耕  基肥  分层施肥
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0200600);国家重点研发计划课题(2016YFD0200601);北京市农林科学院院级科技创新团队(JNKYT201607)
作者单位
祝清震 1. 西北农林科技大学机械与电子工程学院杨凌 712100
2. 北京农业信息技术研究中心北京 100097
 
武广伟 2. 北京农业信息技术研究中心北京 100097
 
陈立平 3. 北京农业智能装备技术研究中心北京 100097
 
孟志军 3. 北京农业智能装备技术研究中心北京 100097
 
史江涛 4. 西安亚澳农机股份有限公司西安 710300
 
赵春江 1. 西北农林科技大学机械与电子工程学院杨凌 712100
2. 北京农业信息技术研究中心北京 100097
 
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中文摘要:针对中国黄淮海地区冬小麦主产区基肥的无序、过量施用和利用率低等问题,该文在基肥分层施用农艺研究基础上,基于旋耕机覆土原理,提出了土壤后覆盖方式下的冬小麦基肥精准分层定深投送方法,并设计了冬小麦基肥分层定深施用装置,该装置可一次完成旋耕、分层施肥和镇压作业。其中旋耕机构配备变速齿轮传动箱,可以进行高、中、低3种转速之间的转换,选用国标IT245型号旋耕刀,在刀辊上按对称螺旋线布置;肥料分层投送机构配深层和浅层排肥管,用于深层和浅层肥料的投送作业。在北京小汤山精准农业示范基地进行了装置的田间作业性能试验,结果显示:装置在120、150和180 mm的3种耕深作业工况下,耕深最大误差为5 mm,耕深稳定性系数最小为93.84%,满足旋耕机构的作业性能技术要求;设置浅层和深层肥料的目标施用深度分别为80和150 mm,实际肥料施用深度稳定性系数分别为92.38%和95.11%、合格率分别为83.33%和90%,满足旋耕施肥装置的作业性能指标要求。该研究可以为冬小麦基肥的机械化精准分层定深施用技术提供装备支撑。
Zhu Qingzhen,Wu Guangwei,Chen Liping,Meng Zhijun,Shi Jiangtao,Zhao Chunjiang.Design of stratified and depth-fixed application device of base-fertilizer for winter wheat based on soil-covering rotary tillage[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering (Transactions of the CSAE),2018,34(13):18-26.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2018.13.003
Design of stratified and depth-fixed application device of base-fertilizer for winter wheat based on soil-covering rotary tillage
Author NameAffiliation
Zhu Qingzhen 1. College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
2. Beijing Agricultural Information Technology Research Center, Beijing 100097, China
 
Wu Guangwei 2. Beijing Agricultural Information Technology Research Center, Beijing 100097, China
 
Chen Liping 3. Beijing Research Center of Intelligent Equipment for Agriculture, Beijing 100097, China
 
Meng Zhijun 3. Beijing Research Center of Intelligent Equipment for Agriculture, Beijing 100097, China
 
Shi Jiangtao 4. Xi'an Yaao Agricultural Machinery Co. Ltd. ,Xi'an 710300, China
 
Zhao Chunjiang 1. College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
2. Beijing Agricultural Information Technology Research Center, Beijing 100097, China
 
Key words:agricultural machinery  design  rotary tillage  base-fertilizer  separated layer fertilization
Abstract:Winter wheat is the most important crop for Huanghe-Huaihe-Haihe (H-H-H) region of China, which has the characteristics of large planting area, high yield per unit area and high total yield and so on. Base-fertilizer application is an important process of winter wheat production, which directly affects the yield of winter wheat. At present, base-fertilizer of winter wheat is applied to the surface of farmland by manure spreader or laborers in the H-H-H region of China, and the moldboard plow or rotary tiller is used to bury the base-fertilizer underground, but these methods have the shortcomings of disorderly application of fertilizer, and have caused great harm to the agricultural environment because of excessive application of fertilizer and low utilization efficiency. The precisely stratified and depth-fixed application method of base-fertilizer for winter wheat is a perfect way to improve the utilization efficiency of fertilizer. On the stratified and depth-fixed application method of agronomic research in the base-fertilizer, a stratified and depth-fixed application method of base-fertilizer for winter wheat based on soil-covering rotary tillage was proposed in this paper, and the application device was set up. The device could implement rotary tillage, separated layer fertilization and compacting at the same time. The device was mainly composed of 8 parts: frame, deep fertilizer box, shallow fertilizer box, precise fertilizer control system, compacting device, mechanism of complete fertilizer layered device, rotary tilling device, depth-controlled component. The rotary tilling device was equipped with variable speed gearbox, which could convert between between high, medium and low rotate speed. National standard IT245 rotary blade was selected for the rotary tilling device and was arranged on the knife roller by a symmetrical spiral line. Through kinematic analysis of rotary blade and soil block, the mathematical model of the positions of fertilizer outlet orifice of the deep and shallow fertilizer tube and the depth of fertilization target was established. The mechanism of complete fertilizer layered device was designed and manufactured based on the mathematical model. The fertilizer layered mechanism could be adjusted longitudinally and laterally according to the requirements of the fertilize depth. In order to test the performance of stratified and depth-fixed application device, an experiment was designed and conducted at the National Experiment Station for Precision Agriculture located in Xiaotangshan Town, Beijing City on October 2017. The maximum rotary tillage depth error of the device is 5 mm, and the minimum coefficient of rotary tillage depth stability is 93.84% under 3 kinds of target rotary tillage working condition of 120, 150 and 180 mm. The result indicated that the rotary tilling device could meet the technical requirements of national standard. When the target application depth of the shallow and deep fertilizer was 80 and 150 mm, the coefficient of the shallow and deep actual fertilizer depth stability was 92.38% and 95.11% respectively, and the qualified rates of the shallow and deep actual fertilizer depth were 83.33% and 90% respectively. The result indicated that the stratified and depth-fixed application device could meet the technical requirements of rotary tillage and fertilizing. The research can provide equipment support for the mechanization of precisely stratified and depth-fixed application of base-fertilizer for winter wheat and improve the application efficiency of base-fertilizer in H-H-H region of China.
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