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祝清震,武广伟,安晓飞,陈立平,孟志军,赵春江.基肥定深施用装置排肥口位置与施肥深度关系模型[J].农业工程学报,2018,34(13):8-17.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2018.13.002
基肥定深施用装置排肥口位置与施肥深度关系模型
投稿时间:2018-01-21  修订日期:2018-06-11
中文关键词:  机械化  肥料  模型  基肥施用  定深施肥  数学建模  旋耕理论  精准农业
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0200600,2016YFD0200601);北京市农林科学院院级科技创新团队(JNKYT201607)
作者单位
祝清震 1. 西北农林科技大学机械与电子工程学院杨凌 712100
2. 北京农业信息技术研究中心北京 100097
 
武广伟 2. 北京农业信息技术研究中心北京 100097
 
安晓飞 2. 北京农业信息技术研究中心北京 100097
 
陈立平 3. 北京农业智能装备技术研究中心北京 100097
 
孟志军 3. 北京农业智能装备技术研究中心北京 100097
 
赵春江 1. 西北农林科技大学机械与电子工程学院杨凌 712100
2. 北京农业信息技术研究中心北京 100097
 
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中文摘要:针对中国黄淮海地区冬小麦基肥施用过程中化肥无序投送造成的过量施用、利用率低的问题,结合现有的冬小麦旋耕施肥作业的农艺特点,该研究提出一种基于旋耕覆土的基肥定深条施投送方法。通过对旋耕刀、后抛土块进行运动学分析,建立了基肥定深施用装置排肥口位置与施肥深度关系模型,搭建了旋耕施肥试验平台,设计了2组递进试验,应用该平台对建立的排肥口位置与施肥深度关系模型进行大田试验验证,在旋耕机构的结构参数和工作参数一定的情况下,根据建立的关系模型对排肥管的安装位置进行依次调整,试验设置80、100、120、140和160 mm共计5种肥料目标投送深度,然后对5种肥料目标投送深度下的肥料实际位置深度进行测量。试验结果表明,肥料的实际位置深度均值与对应目标投送深度的偏差最大值为9 mm,偏移率最大值为8.75%,肥料的实际投送位置深度和目标投送深度基本吻合。该研究可以为中国黄淮海地区冬小麦基肥的精准定深实施及其相关联合机具开发提供理论依据。
Zhu Qingzhen,Wu Guangwei,An Xiaofei,Chen Liping,Meng Zhijun,Zhao Chunjiang.Relationship model of fertilizer outlet location and fertilizer application depth of depth-fixed application device of base-fertilizer[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering (Transactions of the CSAE),2018,34(13):8-17.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2018.13.002
Relationship model of fertilizer outlet location and fertilizer application depth of depth-fixed application device of base-fertilizer
Author NameAffiliation
Zhu Qingzhen 1. College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
2. Beijing Agricultural Information Technology Research Center, Beijing 100097, China
 
Wu Guangwei 2. Beijing Agricultural Information Technology Research Center, Beijing 100097, China
 
An Xiaofei 2. Beijing Agricultural Information Technology Research Center, Beijing 100097, China
 
Chen Liping 3. Beijing Research Center of Intelligent Equipment for Agriculture, Beijing 100097, China
 
Meng Zhijun 3. Beijing Research Center of Intelligent Equipment for Agriculture, Beijing 100097, China
 
Zhao Chunjiang 1. College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
2. Beijing Agricultural Information Technology Research Center, Beijing 100097, China
 
Key words:mechanization  fertilizer  models  base-fertilizer application  located fertilization  mathematical modeling  rotary tillage  precision fertilization
Abstract:Winter wheat is the most important crop in China, which has a large planting area, a high per unit area yield and a high total output. This is important to the maintenance of national food security. Base-fertilizer application is an important process of winter wheat production, which directly affects the yield of crops, and reasonable and effective use of chemical fertilizer can improve the yield of crops. At present, base-fertilizer of winter wheat is applied to the surface of farmland by manure spreader or laborers. Then the rotary tiller or moldboard plow is used to bury the fertilizer underground. The method has the problems of disordered fertilizer, excessive fertilizer delivery and low utilization efficiency. The depth-setting fertilizer application for winter wheat is an ideal way of fertilization. It can carry out a uniform fertilization to the winter wheat’s underside position with a certain depth, which can reduce fertilizer amount compared with the traditional fertilization operation. It is a fertilization technique with high output, stable yield and low cost. Combined with the characteristics of rotary tillage fertilizing of winter wheat in Huanghe-Huaihe-Haihe (HHH) zone of China, this paper proposes a precise depth-setting fertilizer application method based on principle of rotary tillage. From the kinematics analysis of rotary blade and soil block respectively, the mathematical model of the positions of fertilizer outlet orifice of steel pipe and the target depth of fertilization was established. In order to validate this mathematical model, a precision rotary tillage fertilization test platform was set up. The test platform includes tractor, depth-controlled component, rotary tillage device, fertilizer ejecting device, precision hydraulic control system and press device. The fertilizer ejecting device is the key part of the test platform. It includes longitudinal beam, fastening bolt, steel pipe of fertilizer ejecting, U-shaped bolt and sleeve. The steel pipe of fertilizer ejecting can be adjusted longitudinally and laterally according to the requirements of the test. In order to accurately validate the mathematical model, 2 groups of progressive experiments were designed and conducted at the National Experiment Station for Precision Agriculture in Xiaotangshan Town, Beijing City in October 2017. After testing, the hardness, humidity and temperature of soil in the test area at the depth of 0-10 cm were 615.0 kPa, 10.9% and 17.6 ℃, respectively. In the experiment, the IT245 rotary blade cutting operation parts were selected, and power transfer mechanism used John Deal 1204 tractor. The tractor was controlled at the speed of 1.5 m/s, the rotational speed of rotary blade was stable at 180 r/min, and the rotary tillage depth was set to 200 mm in the verification test. The experiment selected blue fertilizer as the application object. Target fertilization depth was set as 80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 mm, respectively, for the precision fertilization field test, and the actual depth of fertilization was 73, 92, 111, 132 and 151 mm, respectively. The maximum offset deviation of fertilization depth was 9 mm, and the maximum deviation ratio of fertilization depth was 8.75%, which could meet the requirement of the actual production. The results of these experiments show that the mathematical model of the positions of fertilizer outlet orifice of steel pipe and the target depth of fertilization established is trustworthy. The results can be a theoretical basis for design and development of rotary tillage and fertilization equipment.
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