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陈红,尹伊君,潘海兵,鲍秀兰,李善军,徐勤超,徐翔宙.宽皮柑橘机械损伤致损因素分析及缓冲减损防护措施[J].农业工程学报,2018,34(1):258-266.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2018.01.035
宽皮柑橘机械损伤致损因素分析及缓冲减损防护措施
投稿时间:2017-08-28  修订日期:2017-11-20
中文关键词:  水果  贮藏  分类  柑橘  损伤  缓冲防护
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目 智能农机 现代果园智能化精细生产管理技术 (2017YFD0701400);国家现代柑橘产业技术体系专项基金(CARS-27)
作者单位
陈红 1.华中农业大学工学院武汉 4300702. 农业部长江中下游农业装备重点实验室武汉 430070 
尹伊君 1.华中农业大学工学院武汉 4300702. 农业部长江中下游农业装备重点实验室武汉 430070 
潘海兵 1.华中农业大学工学院武汉 4300702. 农业部长江中下游农业装备重点实验室武汉 430070 
鲍秀兰 1.华中农业大学工学院武汉 4300702. 农业部长江中下游农业装备重点实验室武汉 430070 
李善军 1.华中农业大学工学院武汉 4300702. 农业部长江中下游农业装备重点实验室武汉 430070 
徐勤超 1.华中农业大学工学院武汉 4300702. 农业部长江中下游农业装备重点实验室武汉 430070 
徐翔宙 1.华中农业大学工学院武汉 4300702. 农业部长江中下游农业装备重点实验室武汉 430070 
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中文摘要:为了探究宽皮柑橘在采摘、贮运、加工过程中机械损伤规律,该文通过挤压、跌落、振动等不同载荷条件下的宽皮柑橘机械损伤特性试验,分析了柑橘果实在固定贮藏时间段内的质量损失和细胞渗透变化等生物学特性,结合试验数据和数学建模,定量估算柑橘机械损伤程度,运用机器学习问题中的k近邻分类,建立了评判宽皮柑橘机械损伤情况的二分类预测模型,试验准确率大于80%。探究了胶合板、瓦楞纸、泡沫(聚苯乙烯泡沫塑料,EPS)和塑料(高密度低压聚乙烯,HDPE)在挤压、跌落、振动等不同受载情况下的减损效果。结果表明:在不加防护措施情况下,柑橘受到的挤压力不宜超过10 N,柑橘的单次铅直跌下落高度应控制在90 cm内,尽量减少柑橘堆码层数,直接接触堆码的层数建议不超过2层,应对上层进行必要的缓冲保护,振动时间不宜大于0.5 h,加速度建议不超过0.8 g;挤压时瓦楞纸减损效果最好,柑橘机械损伤程度为0.4%;跌落后EPS减损效果最好,柑橘机械损伤程度为6.46%;振动时HDPE减损效果最好,柑橘机械损伤程度为4.33%。研究结果可为宽皮柑橘采收和采后处理中的有关装备设计和减损防护提供参考。
Chen Hong,Yin Yijun,Pan Haibing,Bao Xiulan,Li Shanjun,Xu Qinchao,Xu Xiangzhou.Loss factor analysis of mechanical damage and cushioning protection measure for Citrus reticulate Blanco[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering (Transactions of the CSAE),2018,34(1):258-266.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2018.01.035
Loss factor analysis of mechanical damage and cushioning protection measure for Citrus reticulate Blanco
Author NameAffiliation
Chen Hong 1. College of Engineering, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China
2. Key Laboratory of Agricultural Equipment in Mid-lower Yangtze River, Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan, 430070, China 
Yin Yijun 1. College of Engineering, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China
2. Key Laboratory of Agricultural Equipment in Mid-lower Yangtze River, Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan, 430070, China 
Pan Haibing 1. College of Engineering, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China
2. Key Laboratory of Agricultural Equipment in Mid-lower Yangtze River, Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan, 430070, China 
Bao Xiulan 1. College of Engineering, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China
2. Key Laboratory of Agricultural Equipment in Mid-lower Yangtze River, Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan, 430070, China 
Li Shanjun 1. College of Engineering, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China
2. Key Laboratory of Agricultural Equipment in Mid-lower Yangtze River, Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan, 430070, China 
Xu Qinchao 1. College of Engineering, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China
2. Key Laboratory of Agricultural Equipment in Mid-lower Yangtze River, Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan, 430070, China 
Xu Xiangzhou 1. College of Engineering, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China
2. Key Laboratory of Agricultural Equipment in Mid-lower Yangtze River, Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan, 430070, China 
Key words:fruits  storage  classification  citrus  damage  cushioning protection
Abstract: Mechanical damage of Citrus reticulate Blanco has an important influence on the postharvest characteristics. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of load conditions on mechanical damage of citrus and the protection performance of different material for citrus. Citrus without damage was set as a positive control group and the obviously damaged citrus was set as a negative control group which were stored for 7 or 14 days. Compression, dropping and vibration, 3 common loads in harvesting and the postharvest treatment, were conducted. Different constant load sizes (10, 30, 50 N horizontal, the compression part was the equatorial area of citrus; 50 N vertical, the compression part is the top of citrus) were tested in the compression experiment based on TMS-PRO texture analyzer using creep programming. Different heights (90, 105, 120 cm) were tested in the dropping experiment based on the dropping test platform. Different positions (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th floor), time (0.5, 1, 1.5 h) and accelerations (0.8, 1.15, 1.4 g) were tested in the vibration experiment based on 7YGD-40 self-propelled single-track orchard conveyor. Mass loss rate and relative permeability of cell membrane of citrus were measured after the 3 different experiments. According to the experimental data, using the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS), the data of positive control group were considered as ideal point, the degree of mechanical damage of citrus was defined and calculated, and the mechanical damage of citrus was quantitatively estimated based on the mass loss rate and relative permeability of citrus. Based on the k-nearest neighbor classification in machine learning, using scikit-learn in Python, the positive and negative control groups were used as training data set, the dichotomous prediction model of mechanical damage of citrus was established, and the damage rate of citrus was qualitatively classified. The test accuracy was over 80%. Due to the mass loss and the change of the cell membrane permeability under different load conditions, the 5 factors of the 3 experiments had extremely significant effects on the mass loss rate and relative permeability of citrus (P<0.01). The predictions of the mechanical damage of citrus showed that the pressure should be less than 10 N to keep the unprotected citrus from damage. It was suggested that the contact force should not exceed this value if the rigid manipulator was used to pick up the citrus. When vibrated, the number of stacked layers of the citrus should be decreased as much as possible, and it was suggested to be 2 layers if citrus was contacted directly, and the citrus on the upper layers should be provided a cushion to protect against shock. Vibration acceleration should be less than 0.8 g and vibration time should be less than 0.5 h. In addition, the evaluation of the damage degree of citrus showed: Corrugated paper had the best effect on reducing damage (damage degree was only 0.4%), and plywood had the secondary effect (damage degree was 4.77%) in the compression experiment; EPS (expanded polystyrene) had the best effect on reducing damage (damage degree was 6.46%) in the dropping experiment; HDPE (high density polyethylene) had the best effect on reducing damage (damage degree was 4.33%) in the vibration experiment. The results of the study can provide a reference for equipment design and damage protection in the harvesting and postharvest treatment of Citrus reticulate Blanco.
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