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袁晶晶,同延安,卢绍辉,袁国军.生物炭与氮肥配施对枣园土壤培肥效应的综合评价[J].农业工程学报,2018,34(1):134-140.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2018.01.18
生物炭与氮肥配施对枣园土壤培肥效应的综合评价
投稿时间:2017-09-02  修订日期:2017-12-15
中文关键词:  土壤    生物质  红枣果园  因子分析  聚类分析
基金项目:中低产田改良科技工程(2012BAD05B00);林业公益性行业科研专项(201104017)资助。
作者单位
袁晶晶 1.西北农林科技大学资源环境学院杨凌 712100; 2. 农业部西北植物营养与农业环境重点实验室杨凌 712100; 
同延安 1.西北农林科技大学资源环境学院杨凌 712100; 2. 农业部西北植物营养与农业环境重点实验室杨凌 712100; 
卢绍辉 3. 河南省林业科学研究院郑州 450003; 
袁国军 3. 河南省林业科学研究院郑州 450003; 
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中文摘要:为了明确生物炭与氮肥不同配比条件下的应用效果,探寻最佳配比施肥量,为枣园土壤资源高效利用、培肥改良技术提供可靠的科学依据。通过3 a(2013~2015)田间定位试验,选择14 项反映土壤质量的理化及生物学指标作为评价指标,采用因子分析对各配施处理下的土壤质量进行综合评价,并对其进行聚类分析,最后利用红枣产量结果进行验证。结果表明:通过因子分析法将原14个土壤性质指标降维,提取出3个公因子,反映了原信息量的82.49%。第1 公因子以全氮、全钾、速效钾、微生物量碳贡献最大,可作为保肥供肥因子。 第2 公因子上以脲酶、微生物量氮、蔗糖酶贡献最大, 可作为微生物活性因子。碱性磷酸酶为第3 公因子上的主要影响因子。土壤养分、微生物量、酶活性及微生物数量之间存在多种显著或极显著正相关关系。枣园土壤质量综合得分以C3N1处理最高,其次为C2N3和C2N2处理,这一结果与产量的变化趋势比较吻合。聚类分析将不同处理分为5类,分析结果与各处理因子综合得分评价较为一致。在本研究试验条件下,10 t/hm2的生物炭,配施300 kg/hm2的氮肥为最佳培肥模式。 研究结果对生物炭和氮肥配施在农田果园的合理施肥和科学管理提供科学依据。
Yuan Jingjing,Tong Yan'an,Lu Shaohui,Yuan Guojun.Comprehensive evaluation on soil fertility quality of jujube orchard under combined application of biochar and nitrogen fertilizer[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering (Transactions of the CSAE),2018,34(1):134-140.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2018.01.18
Comprehensive evaluation on soil fertility quality of jujube orchard under combined application of biochar and nitrogen fertilizer
Author NameAffiliation
Yuan Jingjing 1. College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, China; 2. Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and the Agri-environment in Northwest China, Ministry of Agriculture, Yangling, 712100, China; 
Tong Yan'an 1. College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, China; 2. Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and the Agri-environment in Northwest China, Ministry of Agriculture, Yangling, 712100, China; 
Lu Shaohui 3. Academy of Forestry Sciences of Henan Province, Zhengzhou 450003, China; 
Yuan Guojun 3. Academy of Forestry Sciences of Henan Province, Zhengzhou 450003, China; 
Key words:soil  nitrogen  biomass  jujube orchard  factor analysis  cluster analysis
Abstract: In this study, the study area is the main jujube producing region in China. Intensive management including excessive fertilizers input and spraying pesticides were widely performed in order to obtain higher yield and income benefits, which have shown to accelerate the deterioration of soil quality and affect the edible quality and safety of jujube to consumers. Therefore, the object of this study was to identify the optimum amendment rate under the combined application of peanut shell biochar and nitrogen (N) fertilizer at different levels in jujube plantation, which could not only provide a scientific evidence for high-efficient fertilization and enhancing soil fertility, but also decrease chemical fertilizer input to reduce environmental risks and maintain the sustainable development of jujube industry. A three-year consecutive field experiment was conducted from 2013 to 2015 in jujube orchards of the North China Plain. A widely planted jujube cultivar in Henan Province was chosen and fifteen-year-old trees were used as testing materials in this study. There were a total of 13 treatments, including CK (no fertilizer), 4 levels of biochars (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 t/hm2, namely, C0, C1, C2 and C3) and 3 levels of N fertilizers (300, 450 and 600 kg/hm2, namely, N1, N2 and N3). A total of 14 important quantitative indices (organic matter, total and available soil nutrient, soil microbial biomass, enzyme activities) related to soil chemical, physical and biological properties were selected, and the factor analysis and the minimum Euclidean distance method were employed to evaluate the overall soil fertility under biochar and N fertilizer amendments. Jujube yield was used to verify the evaluation results. The results indicated that 3 common factors extracted from the initial 14 indices could reflect 82.49% of the original information quantity without losing any original variable. The first common factor was related to soil total N, total K, available K and microbial biomass N, which were the major contributors to nutrient maintenance and supply capacity of soil. The second common factor was related to the activities of urease and invertase, and microbial biomass C, which was regarded as the microbial activity factor, followed by the alkaline phosphatase activity, which was the major contributor to the third common factor. There were significant positive correlations among soil nutrients, microbial biomass, enzyme activities and microbial population according to the correlation analysis. The highest score of soil quality was observed in the C3N1 treatment, followed by the C2N3 and C2N2 treatments, which were almost in line with the results of jujube yields. Hierarchical cluster analysis classified 13 treatments into 5 main groups on the basis of the measured parameters, which was mostly consistent with the result of soil quality scores. The optimal amounts for biochar and N fertilizer according to these results should be 10 t/hm2 and 300 kg/hm2, respectively. These findings give us a better scientific basis for high-efficient fertilization and management under the combined application of peanut shell biochar and N fertilizer amendments in orchards, suggesting that biochar-amended treatment was practical and cost-efficient measure to restore crop productivity and soil quality in this study area.
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