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刘兆朋,张智刚,罗锡文,王辉,黄培奎,张健.雷沃ZP9500高地隙喷雾机的GNSS自动导航作业系统设计[J].农业工程学报,2018,34(1):15-21.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2018.01.03
雷沃ZP9500高地隙喷雾机的GNSS自动导航作业系统设计
投稿时间:2017-07-18  修订日期:2017-11-12
中文关键词:  农业机械  自动导航  控制  路径跟踪  喷雾机
基金项目:国家国际科技合作专项项目(2015DFG12280);广东省科技计划项目(2016B020205003)
作者单位
刘兆朋 1.华南农业大学南方农业机械与装备关键技术省部共建教育部重点实验室广州 510642; 
张智刚 1.华南农业大学南方农业机械与装备关键技术省部共建教育部重点实验室广州 510642; 
罗锡文 1.华南农业大学南方农业机械与装备关键技术省部共建教育部重点实验室广州 510642; 
王辉 1.华南农业大学南方农业机械与装备关键技术省部共建教育部重点实验室广州 510642; 
黄培奎 1.华南农业大学南方农业机械与装备关键技术省部共建教育部重点实验室广州 510642; 
张健 1.华南农业大学南方农业机械与装备关键技术省部共建教育部重点实验室广州 510642; 2.青岛农业大学机电工程学院青岛 266109; 
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中文摘要:为减少农药喷雾作业对人体造成的化学损害,该研究以雷沃高地隙喷杆喷雾机为平台,基于GNSS开发了自动导航作业系统,实现喷雾机在极少人工干预情况下的自动导航作业。通过对平台的机-电-液改造,实现了喷雾机作业系统的电气化控制。基于简化的二自由度车辆转向模型设计了以位置偏差和航向偏差为状态变量的直线路径跟踪控制算法,基于纯追踪模型设计了曲线路径跟踪控制算法。根据喷雾机田间作业需要设计了喷雾机一体化自动导航作业控制方法,使系统能够自动控制喷雾机完成直线、地头转弯行驶和喷雾作业,油门调节以及车辆启停控制。在1.3 m/s左右的前进速度条件下,分别在水泥路面、旱田、水田环境中进行了试验,测试结果表明:水泥路面车身横滚在-1.6?~1.5?范围,直线路径跟踪误差最大值为3.9 cm,平均值为?0.15 cm,标准差为1.0 cm;旱田地块车身横滚在-1.4?~3.3?范围,跟踪误差最大值为9.8 cm,平均值为1.3 cm,标准差为3.3 cm;水田环境车身横滚在-2.4?~5.2?范围,跟踪误差最大值为17.5 cm,平均值为2.2 cm,标准差为4.4 cm。试验数据表明,所设计的自动导航作业系统初始上线快速、地头转弯对行平顺、各设计功能执行可靠;导航系统具有良好的稳定性和控制精度,能够满足水田、旱田环境下的喷雾作业要求。
Liu Zhaopeng,Zhang Zhigang,Luo Xiwen,Wang Hui,Huang Peikui,Zhang Jian.Design of automatic navigation operation system for Lovol ZP9500 high clearance boom sprayer based on GNSS[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering (Transactions of the CSAE),2018,34(1):15-21.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2018.01.03
Design of automatic navigation operation system for Lovol ZP9500 high clearance boom sprayer based on GNSS
Author NameAffiliation
Liu Zhaopeng 1. Key Laboratory of Key Technology on Agricultural Machine and Equipment, Ministry of Education, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China; 
Zhang Zhigang 1. Key Laboratory of Key Technology on Agricultural Machine and Equipment, Ministry of Education, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China; 
Luo Xiwen 1. Key Laboratory of Key Technology on Agricultural Machine and Equipment, Ministry of Education, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China; 
Wang Hui 1. Key Laboratory of Key Technology on Agricultural Machine and Equipment, Ministry of Education, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China; 
Huang Peikui 1. Key Laboratory of Key Technology on Agricultural Machine and Equipment, Ministry of Education, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China; 
Zhang Jian 1. Key Laboratory of Key Technology on Agricultural Machine and Equipment, Ministry of Education, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China; 2. College of Mechanical Engineering, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109, China; 
Key words:agricultural machinery  automatic guidance  control  path tracking  sprayer
Abstract:Automatic navigation operation has become an inevitable trend as the development of agricultural machinery and equipment. To realize the sprayer working in field with the minimal manual intervention and avoid the pesticide injury to human in manual operation, on the basis of electrification transformation of the spray machine, Lovol high clearance boom sprayer ZP9500, the automatic navigation operation system was developed based on RTK-GNSS (real-time kinematic - global navigation satellite system). Electro-hydraulic steering system with a proportional flow control valve was equipped on ZP9500, and an angle sensor was coaxially connected to steering knuckle arms, realizing the closed-loop control system for steering. For the same advantage to throttle system, a push-rod electric machine with travel sensor was installed, and the push-rod was connected to accelerator via wire rope. Installed in parallel, 2 electromagnetic relays were connected to the electronic switch of vehicle clutch and spray pump respectively, and 3 electric two-way valves were connected to 3 spray bar switches. So, the steering, accelerator, vehicle travelling, spraying and sprinkling width of sprayer could be operated in electric control. GNSS receiver with double satellite antennas and inertial sensor component, were applied in the system as the crucial position and orientation measurement equipment. Based on the hardware platform, the path planning strategy, automatic navigation controller and automatic operation controller were developed. The automatic navigation controller could guide the vehicle along the planned path generated by path planning strategy, and complete straight line tracking and headland turning. The curve tracking controller was designed based on pure pursuit model, and the linear path tracking controller was designed based on states feedback of lateral error, yaw angle and speed. And the operation controller could realize the vehicle start or stop, spraying, amplitude adjustment and speed switch control automatically according to different working conditions,such as RTK signal out of order, vehicle headland turning, and spraying operation completed. To verify the reliability and accuracy of the automatic operation system, at the speed of 1.3 m/s, the test was carried out in the field of cement pavement, dry farmland and paddy field. Due to the difference of field size and setting width, 4 rows were planned in cement pavement, 5 rows were planned in dry farmland, and 4 rows were planned in paddy field. Test result showed that: 1) The navigation operation system could automatically guide the spraying machine to complete the spraying operation in field, the switch between straight line tracking and curve tracking was smooth, and all the functions performed reliably. 2) The tracking accuracy and stability, and lateral position deviation were consistent in the same farmland, but in different conditions, it showed obvious differences. On cement pavement, when swinging on rough road, the vehicle rolling angle was from ?1.6? to 1.5?, the maximum tracking error of the lateral direction was 3.9 cm, the average error of each row was from ?1.0 to 0.4 cm, and the standard deviation of deviation of each row was 0.8-1.4 cm. In dry farmland, the vehicle rolling angle was from ?1.4? to 3.3?, the maximum tracking error was 9.8 cm, the average error of each row was from 0.9 to 1.9 cm, and the standard deviation of deviation of each row was between 2.1 and 4.6 cm. In paddy field, the vehicle rolling angle was from ?2.4? to 5.2?, the maximum tracking error was 17.5 cm, the average error of each row was between 1.4 and 2.9 cm, and the standard deviation of deviation of each row was between 3.0 and 5.2 cm. 3) By studying the tracking error and the rolling angle of each row, the maximum tracking error had significant negative correlation with the maximum rolling angle, and their negative correlation coefficient was 0.914. Meanwhile, the standard deviation of tracking error and the maximum rolling angle had the same characteristic relationship, and their negative correlation coefficient was 0.947.
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