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张燕青,崔清亮,王 丰,侯华铭,胡席忠.谷子精少量流体排种装置的设计与试验[J].农业工程学报,2017,33(12):20-27.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2017.12.003
谷子精少量流体排种装置的设计与试验
投稿时间:2016-12-20  修订日期:2017-01-15
中文关键词:  农业机械  设计  试验  排种装置  播种  流体  谷子  保水剂
基金项目:国家重点研发计划课题(2016YFD0701801);山西省科技攻关项目(20120311035)
作者单位
张燕青 1. 山西农业大学工学院太谷 030801
 
崔清亮 1. 山西农业大学工学院太谷 030801
 
王 丰 2. 山西农业大学信息学院太谷 030800
 
侯华铭 1. 山西农业大学工学院太谷 030801
 
胡席忠 1. 山西农业大学工学院太谷 030801
 
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全文下载次数: 1016
中文摘要:为解决中国北方旱地谷子播种难、播后出苗率低的问题,根据谷子免间苗精少量播种农艺要求,采用农用保水剂和水配制了谷子种粒混合悬浮液(mixed suspension),并针对其设计试制了谷子精少量流体排种装置。该文设计确定了输送泵滚轮数为6个及分合式排种管组合结构与尺寸参数,其中泵管、长弯排种管、短弯排种管、末端排种管的内径分别为4.8、4、4、4 mm,长度分别为700、100、74.4、20 mm;并阐述了流体排种装置吸种、输种、排种工作过程。以种粒数变异系数为指标对配制的谷子种粒混合悬浮液的均匀性和稳定性进行了试验测定;以种粒破碎率、穴距合格率、穴粒数合格率、空穴率为指标对流体排种装置进行了室内排种试验;以穴距合格率、穴株数合格率、出苗率为指标进行了田间播种试验。结果表明,谷子种粒混合悬浮液中保水剂、谷子种粒、水的质量比为1.1∶10∶200,其静置0.5 h后种粒数变异系数为9.8%,谷子种粒混合悬浮液在静置5 h内的种粒数变异系数为9.7%~10.4%,谷子种粒未发生沉降现象;室内排种试验种粒破碎率小于0.01%、穴距合格率大于86%、穴粒数合格率大于75%、空穴率小于4.0%;田间播种试验穴距合格率大于77%、穴株数合格率大于74%、出苗率大于87 %。该研究可为小颗粒种子精少量流体播种技术与装备的研发提供参考。
Zhang Yanqing,Cui Qingliang,Wang Feng,Hou Huaming,Hu Xizhong.Design and test of fluid and small-amount seed metering device for foxtail millet[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering (Transactions of the CSAE),2017,33(12):20-27.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2017.12.003
Design and test of fluid and small-amount seed metering device for foxtail millet
Author NameAffiliation
Zhang Yanqing 1. College of Engineering, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu 030801, China
 
Cui Qingliang 2. College of Information, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu 030800, China 
Wang Feng 1. College of Engineering, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu 030801, China
 
Hou Huaming 1. College of Engineering, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu 030801, China
 
Hu Xizhong 1. College of Engineering, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu 030801, China
 
Key words:agricultural machinery  design  experiments  seed metering device  sowing  fluid  foxtail millet  super absorbent polymers
Abstract:Abstract:In order to solve the difficulties of sowing for foxtail millet and improve the low germination rate of millet after sowing in dry land of North China, we firstly studied the agricultural requirements of precision drill of millet without thinning out seedlings. We prepared a mixed suspension of foxtail millet using water and agricultural super absorbent polymers, because the agricultural super absorbent polymers can promote crop growth. We did some experiments to find suitable super absorbent polymers and the optimal proportion for mixed suspension according to the requirement of fluid seeding. At the same time we designed a kind of seed metering device by small-amount liquid for foxtail millet. This paper determined the number of rollers, dimension parameter and combination form of tube. It also expounded sucking seeds, delivering seeds and metering seeds of this seed metering device. This device consists of seed box, delivery pump, pump tube, three-way tube, long bent tube, end drainage tube and short bent tube. The function of delivery pump is providing power for the seed metering device, the function of three-way tube is dividing and combining the mixed suspension, the long bent tube or the short bent tube can improve the uniformity of seeding, and the end drainage tube can decrease every drop volume of mixed suspension to ensure that every drop has 2-3 seeds. Because the delivery pump has impulsive motion, we greatly reduced the impulsive motion of this device by using 6 rollers of .delivery pump and designing the structural style of tube, which has long bent tube, short bent tube, three-way tube and end drainage tube. The length of long bent tube is 100 mm, and the length of short bent tube is 74.4 mm. We also chose the material and diameter of tube. The material of tube is silica gel, which has the advantages of good elasticity and long service life. The diameter of pump tube, long bent tube, short bent tube and end drainage tube is 4.8, 4, 4 and 4 mm, respectively. Finally we designed and conducted the experiments of the uniformity and steadiness for mixed suspension of millet, and the variability coefficient of seed number was adopted. And we performed the performance tests with 4 indices adopted, including the percentage of damaged seeds, qualified rate of hill distance, qualified rate of seed number per hill, and rate of no seed hill for seed metering device in laboratory. We also carried out the field experiment of sowing with 3 indices including the qualified rate of hill distance, qualified rate of plant number per hill and seedling emergence rate for this device. The results showed that the suitable agricultural super absorbent polymer was Anxin for preparing the mixed suspension of foxtail millet, and the quality ratio of super absorbent polymers, grain of millet seed and water was 1.1 : 10 : 200 in mixed suspension; the variability coefficient of seed number was 9.8% in this mixed suspension, and was 9.7%-10.4% within 5 hours, and the seeds in mixed suspension had no obvious settlement. The percentage of damaged seeds was less than 0.01%, the qualified rate of hill distance was greater than 86%, the qualified rate of seed number per hill was greater than 75%, and the rate of no seed hill was less than 4% in laboratory test. The qualified rate of hill distance was greater than 77%, the qualified rate of plant number per hill was greater than 74%, and the seedling emergence rate was greater than 87% in field experiment of sowing. The results provide a theoretical reference for the design and analysis of seed metering device by small-amount liquid for small grain seeds.
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