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熊 伟,王久臣,汤文志,孔文斌,曾卓华,欧阳柬,刘 明,王国华,黄明,熊棣文.三峡环库多业共生耦合循环农业生态系统初构[J].农业工程学报,2013,29(14):203-209.DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1002-6819.2013.14.026
三峡环库多业共生耦合循环农业生态系统初构
投稿时间:2013-04-12  修订日期:2013-06-26
中文关键词:  农业,生态系统,经济,三峡库区
基金项目:科技部支撑计划"三峡库区(农业产业园区)循环经济标准化示范"(2006BAK04A14)课题;星火计划"柑橘低碳循环标准化技术集成应用"(2012GA81100106)课题;重庆市科技创新服务重点项目"三峡环库农业生态系统重构与特色循环生态经济发展研究"(cstc2012cx-rkxB0041)课题支助。
作者单位
熊 伟 1. 重庆市农业技术推广总站重庆 401121 
王久臣 2. 农业部农业生态与资源保护总站北京 100125 
汤文志 3. 重庆市农业委员会重庆 401121 
孔文斌 1. 重庆市农业技术推广总站重庆 401121 
曾卓华 1. 重庆市农业技术推广总站重庆 401121 
欧阳柬 3. 重庆市农业委员会重庆 401121 
刘 明 3. 重庆市农业委员会重庆 401121 
王国华 3. 重庆市农业委员会重庆 401121 
黄明 4. 巫山县特色经作生产管理站重庆 404700 
熊棣文 5. 吉林大学软件学院长春130012 
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中文摘要:三峡蓄水后,水流减缓,自净力减弱,主要支流绿藻虐生;库区新生消落区出露成陆时正直多雨炎热潮湿的夏季,基本丧失拦截、消纳和过滤农业面源污染的功能,加重了长江污染。该文在研究库区优势特色农业发展和生态环境建设的基础上,将库区水域、消落区和生态屏障区作为整体,运用循环经济理论,研究建立库岸柑橘、消落区湿地牧场、水域天然渔场3条环库绿色经济带,集成4链交叉的多链循环经济组网模式,创立5层阻隔拦截和吸收消纳面源污染的工艺技术,围绕库区各主要农业产业发展,把前端废弃物作为内生要素进入后端生产活动中,在注重环境保护的形势下,凝练出多业共生耦合农业循环经济模式和"345"推进方法。创建的巫山大昌湖特色循环农业生态示范园区,实现了三峡库区柑橘、生猪、草食牲畜、长江鱼4大特色产业共生、要素耦合、整体循环、综合利用的产业生态链,推动了三峡库区生态文明建设,满足了库区特色农业发展、农移民增收和国家战略水资源库保护需求,可为大型水库区生态农业发展和水资源环境保护提供参考。
Xiong Wei,Wang Jiuchen,Tang Wenzhi,Kong Wenbin,Zeng Zhuohua,Ouyang Jian,Liu Ming,Wang Guohua,Huang Ming,Xiong Diwen.Establishment of integrative circular agro-ecology system for multiple agricultural industries in Three Gorges Reservoir Area[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering (Transactions of the CSAE),2013,29(14):203-209.DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1002-6819.2013.14.026
Establishment of integrative circular agro-ecology system for multiple agricultural industries in Three Gorges Reservoir Area
Author NameAffiliation
Xiong Wei 1. Chongqing Agricultural Technology Extension Station, Chongqing 401121, China 
Wang Jiuchen 2. Department of Agro-ecology and Resource Protection Station, Beijing 100125, China 
Tang Wenzhi 3. Chongqing Agriculture Committee, Chongqing 401121, China 
Kong Wenbin 1. Chongqing Agricultural Technology Extension Station, Chongqing 401121, China 
Zeng Zhuohua 1. Chongqing Agricultural Technology Extension Station, Chongqing 401121, China 
Ouyang Jian 3. Chongqing Agriculture Committee, Chongqing 401121, China 
Liu Ming 3. Chongqing Agriculture Committee, Chongqing 401121, China 
Wang Guohua 3. Chongqing Agriculture Committee, Chongqing 401121, China 
Huang Ming 4. Wushan Cash Crop Management Station, Chongqing 404700, China 
Xiong Diwen 5. Software College of Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China 
Key words:agriculture, ecosystems, economics, the Three Gorges Reservoir
Abstract: The arable land per capita among the rural migrants located in the Three Gorges Reservoirs Area is only about 386.7 m2. The contradiction between people and their land is severe. After the impoundment of the Three Gorges Project, the water flow and the self-purification ability of the Yangtze River got slowed and declined which resulted in an overmuch growth of the green algae in main tributaries of the Yangtze River. Besides, to meet the electricity generation need in the dry winter or spring, and to prevent the deluge in the rainy summer, the Three Gorges Reservoir impound in the winter and spring, disembogue in the summer. Owing to this, the hydro-fluctuation belt along the river always outcrop into land in the hot and humid rainy summer, hence the hydro-fluctuation belt fail to intercept, absorb and filtrate the agricultural surface source pollution, which cause the increased pollution in the Yangtze River. The contradiction of the economic development and the environmental protection is severe.This research considered the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, the hydro-fluctuation area and the ecological barriers area as an entirety, and combined the specialty agriculture industries, such as: citrus, livestock and fishing industry with the newly developed agricultural technologies, like the orange residue self-drying and high temperature fermentation under aerobic environment technology along with its dedicated organic fertilizers, the biogas slurry pipeline irrigation fertilization integrated device, citrus nutrition diagnosis testing fertilization technology and the new variety of submergence-tolerant pasture, on the basis of the principles of ecological agriculture and recycling economy. A recycling agriculture ecosystems demonstration area was built in the Dachang town, Wushan county, the hinterland of the Three Groges. Relying on the greening the Yangtze River citrus belt project, the hydro-fluctuation belt management project and forced removal of the cage fish culture facilities along the river project, we build three ecological economic zones which are reservoir bank citrus plantations, hydro-fluctuation belt wetland pastures and natural fishery around the reservoir bank to develop specialty industry economy.In this project we integrated "pig-biogas-fruit-residue-feed", "fruit-residue-fertilizer", "livestock-biogas-fruit-grass" and water cycle, developing a new four-chain crossed recycling economy networking mode, and an anti-season hydro-fluctuation area ecologically recycling agriculture progression mode. By using the farming manure as the fertilizer and the irrigation water of the citrus, and using the waste of citrus processing or hydro-fluctuation belt pasture as the feedings of the livestock, we established a system that using the waste of the previous level as the production resource in current level. Due to this system we set up a citrus, pigs, grazing livestock, Yangtze fish and other specialty industrial that industrial symbiosis, coupling elements, the overall recycling and comprehensive utilization of industrial ecological chain in the very area. Also by building biogas project, citrus barrier forest, cut flood engineering, wetland pastures and fishery as 5-layer intercept network, we can block, absorb and digest the area source pollution. With this project we are able to increase the vegetation coverage of the reservoir bank, the income of the migrants and protect the environment of the Three Gorges Reservoirs Area.The established specialty recycling agriculture ecological demonstration area in Dachang Lake, Wushan county will cover the core area of 135 hm2. The 2 km long hydro-fluctuation area will be fully covered by the pasture and the cover ratio of the forest will be over 80 percent. The whole area will be fully covered by plants, and those wastes like farming excrement, waste straw, citrus residue will be completely reutilized and achieve the accomplishment of zero emission. Besides, the citrus yield in the demonstration area will be about 30 tons each hectare and the yield of pasture will be about 33 tons each hectare, which means that the output value per hectare will be over 150,000 Yuan. This area is showing the possibility that increasing the migrants' income and purifying the Yangtze River synchronously.
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