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朱玉,黄磊,党承华,王贺新,姜国斌,李根柱,张自川,娄鑫,郑云普.高温对蓝莓叶片气孔特征和气体交换参数的影响[J].农业工程学报,2016,32(1):218-225.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2016.01.031
高温对蓝莓叶片气孔特征和气体交换参数的影响
投稿时间:2015-08-01  修订日期:2015-12-02
中文关键词:  温度  胁迫  优化  蓝莓  高温胁迫  气孔结构和功能  气孔分布格局  气体交换
基金项目:国家自然科学基金青年项目(31400418);辽宁省科技计划项目(2013204001);河北省自然科学基金项目(14964206D-3);中国博士后基金面上项目(2014M561044)
作者单位
朱玉 大连大学生命科学与技术学院,大连 116622
大连大学现代农业研究院,大连 116622 
黄磊 大连民族大学环境与资源学院,大连 116600 
党承华 河北工程大学水电学院,邯郸 056038 
王贺新 大连大学现代农业研究院,大连 116622 
姜国斌 大连民族大学环境与资源学院,大连 116600 
李根柱 大连大学现代农业研究院,大连 116622 
张自川 大连大学现代农业研究院,大连 116622 
娄鑫 大连大学现代农业研究院,大连 116622 
郑云普 河北工程大学水电学院,邯郸 056038
河北省水生态文明及社会治理研究中心, 邯郸 056038 
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中文摘要:为探讨不同强度高温对南高丛蓝莓叶片气孔特征及其气体交换参数的影响,利用人工气候箱设置4个温度处理:对照(25 ℃)、轻度高温(30 ℃)、中度高温(35 ℃)和重度高温(40 ℃)对两年生南高丛蓝莓(Vaccinium corymbosum L.)幼苗(海岸、奥尼尔及蓝脊)进行为期90 d的光照培养实验。研究结果表明:高温增加海岸和蓝脊叶片的气孔密度,但对奥尼尔的气孔密度无影响。中度高温增大奥尼尔和蓝脊叶片气孔的长度、宽度和面积,但海岸的气孔长度比轻度高温减小23.5%(P<0.05)。高温使奥尼尔的气孔空间分布更加规则,而对海岸和蓝脊的影响不大。3个品种的叶片净光合反应速率(Pn)、气孔导度(Gs)和蒸腾速率(Tr)均随高温强度先升高后降低,但其最大值随品种发生变化。研究结果表明,南高丛蓝莓具有调整气孔结构特征和优化气孔空间分布格局提高其气体交换效率的功能,但在品种间存在较大的差异,最终导致气体交换参数对高温产生不同的响应,尤其表现在抵抗极端高温能力方面。结果有助于从叶片气孔特征变化角度深入理解不同高温强度对南高丛蓝莓气体交换产生影响的潜在机理,为蓝莓耐高温胁迫选育及引种栽培工作提供理论支持。
Zhu Yu,Huang Lei,Dang Chenghua,Wang Hexin,Jiang Guobin,Li Genzhu,Zhang Zichuan,Lou Xin,Zheng Yunpu.Effects of high temperature on leaf stomatal traits and gas exchange parameters of blueberry[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering (Transactions of the CSAE),2016,32(1):218-225.DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2016.01.031
Effects of high temperature on leaf stomatal traits and gas exchange parameters of blueberry
Author NameAffiliation
Zhu Yu School of Life science and Technology, Dalian University, Dalian 116622, China
Institute of Modern Agricultural Research, Dalian University, Dalian 116622, China 
Huang Lei College of Environment and Resources, Dalian Nationality University, Dalian 116600, China 
Dang Chenghua School of Water Conservancy and Hydropower, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan 056038, China 
Wang Hexin Institute of Modern Agricultural Research, Dalian University, Dalian 116622, China 
Jiang Guobin College of Environment and Resources, Dalian Nationality University, Dalian 116600, China 
Li Genzhu Institute of Modern Agricultural Research, Dalian University, Dalian 116622, China 
Zhang Zichuan Institute of Modern Agricultural Research, Dalian University, Dalian 116622, China 
Lou Xin Institute of Modern Agricultural Research, Dalian University, Dalian 116622, China 
Zheng Yunpu School of Water Conservancy and Hydropower, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan 056038, China
Research Center of Water Ecological Civilization and Social Management, Handan 056038, China 
Key words:temperature  stresses  optimization  blueberry  heat stress  stomatal structure and function  stomatal distribution pattern  leaf gas exchange
Abstract:Blueberry is one of the most important fruit trees all over the world and also the major economic tree species cultivated in China.Blueberry was suggested to be planted only in Northern China, because the warmer climate in Southern China could not meet its chilling duration.Several blueberry cultivars have recently been introduced to subtropical China and these cultivars can blossom and bear fruits.However, the temperature in subtropical China often approach 40 ℃ or even higher in summer, and thus high temperature has become the most significant abiotic stress limiting the growth and production of blueberry in this area.Meanwhile, previous studies also reported that the heat endurance ability varied with different blueberry cultivars.In this study, we examined the effects of high temperatures on the leaf stomatal traits and gas exchange of blueberry cultivars with four growth chambers controlling different high temperatures including control (25 ℃), mild high temperature(30 ℃), moderate high temperature(35 ℃), and severe high temperature (40℃).Two-year-old seedlings of three highbush blueberry cultivars including ‘O’Neal’, ‘Gulfcoast’, and ‘Blue Ridge’ were selected from field plots and transplanted into pots (10 cm diameter × 25 cm long) filled with fritted clay (one plant per pot) and grown in a greenhouse with an average temperature of 25/20 ℃(day/night) and about 1 000 μmol m-2·s-1 photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) in natural sun light, and 60%~75% relative humidity for 30 d(March-April 2014) to establish canopy.During the establishment period, plants were irrigated to water-holding capacity daily and fertilized once per week with half-strength Hoagland's solution.We selected 20 healthy and uniform growth plants for each cultivar and then randomly planted the plants into each of four walk-in growth chambers (5 plants for each cultivar), where the temperature was determined as 25, 30, 35, or 40 ℃, respectively.Other environmental factors maintained throughout all the four chambers include humidity (60%~75%), light intensity (1 000 μmol m-2·s-1 PAR), photoperiod (light on at 8 am, and off at 8 pm), soil type (fritted clay, same brand and package for all), water amount (200 ml, watered once per week), and nutrition type (plain tap water).Plants were fertilized once weekly with half-strength Hoagland's solution throughout the growth period.In order to minimize confounding effects of environmental variation between different chambers, we randomly changed the temperature of each growth chamber every week, and then we relocated the high temperature treated plants to the growth chambers with corresponding temperature.The large volume of the pot with frequent watering and fertilization ensured enough space for root growth and ample nutrient supply to avoid “bonsai effect”.Our results showed that comparing with the control, high temperatures increased the stomatal density of Gulfcoast and Blue Ridge, but had little effect on the stomatal density of O′Neal(P>0.05).Moderate high temperature increased the stomatal aperture width, stomatal aperture length, and stomatal area of O′Neal and Blue Ridge, whereas the stomatal aperture length of Gulfcoast was significantly reduced by 23.5% under moderate high temperature(P<0.05) compared with the mild high temperature(30 ℃).High temperatures resulted in a more regular stomatal distribution pattern on the leaves of O′Neal, while had little effect on the stomatal distribution pattern of Gulfcoast and Blue Ridge.Mild and moderate high temperatures significantly increased the net photosynthetic rates (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration rates(Tr) of the three blueberry cultivars, whereas the severe high temperature caused them sharply decrease, although their maximum values varied across the three cultivars.In Conclusion, high temperatures increased the efficiency of leaf gas exchange by adjusting the structural characteristics and optimizing the spatial distribution pattern of stomata on the leaves of the south highbush blueberry.However, the ability of optimization for stomatal structure and function in the leaves of the south highbush blueberry was cultivar dependent, and thus resulted in the different responses to high temperatures in leaf gas exchange across cultivars, especially for heat stress resistance under extremely high temperature.Our results may not only be helpful for further understanding the potential mechanisms of high temperatures on leaf gas exchange of south highbush blueberry from the changes in leaf stomatal traits, but also provide theory for the selection and introduction of heat tolerance cultivars.
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