鲜湿面货架期内硬化主要与淀粉老化密切相关，为抑制鲜湿面老化，该研究以瓜尔豆胶、硬脂酰乳酸钠、水溶性大豆多糖、β-环糊精进行复配，以硬度值为指标，应用响应面进行优化，并通过差示量热扫描仪（differential scanning calorimeter，DSC）研究最佳条件下鲜湿面淀粉的热力学参数及建立老化动力学方程。结果表明：回归得到的二次多项式模型极显著（P<0.0001），且模型校正决定系数为0.8598，相关系数为0.9389，当瓜尔豆胶添加量为0.4%，硬脂酰乳酸钠添加量为0.22%，水溶性大豆多糖添加量为0.18%，β-环糊精添加量为0.15%时，预测得出的鲜湿面硬度值为48.66 N，验证试验得到的鲜湿面的硬度值为41.01 N；最优条件下制备的鲜湿面较对照组具有更加有序致密的结构；最优条件下制备的鲜湿面融化支链淀粉重结晶所需的热焓，重结晶的增长速度均小于空白对照组；最优条件下制备的鲜湿面成核方式也不断趋近与自发成核。说明添加最优抗老化复配剂能很好地延缓鲜湿面淀粉的回生，为保持鲜湿面的食用品质和延缓鲜湿面的货架期提供参考。
Abstract: Fresh noodles are enjoyed by the majority of consumers in recent years, because they maintain the conventional sense such as freshness and chewiness and are easier to store. But fresh noodle starch may form ordered or disordered colloidal net structure because of intermolecular hydrogen bonds during gelatinization. With the prolongation of cooling time, the distance between the colloidal net structure continues to narrow, which leads to 3 results: the colloidal structure of starch gel is getting more closely; the space between the colloidal structure of starch gel reduces; the phenomenon of dehydration occurs in starch gel molecules. When the recrystallization appears, the hardness of starch gel increases, which is the reason why starch is easy to aging during the shelves and seriously affects the quality of fresh noodle. In order to restrain the retrogradation of fresh noodle's starch, this paper investigated the effects of guar gum, sodium stearyl lactate (SSL), soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) on the inhibition of retrogradation for starch of fresh noodle during storage period. Based on a large number of preliminary experiments and single factor experiments, the inhibitory effects of compound anti-aging additives on fresh noodle were studied. Through the experiment design of response surface methodology with 4 factors and 3 levels based on the principle of Box-Behnken design, using the software Design-Expert 8.0, this paper made a significance test for the model and discussed the interactions among factors. Ultimately, through differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), the thermodynamics parameter and the ageing dynamic equation under the optimum condition of fresh noodle starch were studied. The result showed that quadratic model was the best model to describe the interaction between the factors (P<0.0001). The correlation coefficient and adjusted determination coefficient were 0.9389 and 0.8598, respectively. Interactions of inhibition between guar gum and SSL, SSPS and β-CD were significant (P<0.01), and interactions between guar gum and SSL, SSPS and β-CD (P<0.01) were the same. When guar gum, SSL, SSPS and β-CD were 0.4%, 0.22%, 0.18% and 0.15%, the hardness of the fresh noodle was 48.01 N by the software prediction. Under these conditions, the hardness of fresh noodle during the storage (on the 7th day) reached 41.01 N by verifying test. The DSC study showed fresh noodle prepared under the optimal conditions had denser and more orderly structure than the control group; the enthalpy required by the recrystallization of melting amylopectin gradually reduced compared to the control group. By establishing the Avrami equation of aging kinetics, it was found that the growth rate of recrystallization for fresh noodle under optimal conditions was also less than the control group. And compared to the control group, the nucleation mechanism was close to the spontaneous nucleation for the preparation of fresh noodles under the optimal conditions. So the optimal anti-aging compound additives can well retard the starch retrogradation of fresh noodle, which can maintain the fresh noodle quality and delay the fresh noodle's shelf life.
肖东,周文化,邓航,黄阳.鲜湿面抗老化剂复配工艺优化及老化动力学[J].农业工程学报,2015,31(23):261-268. DOI:10.11975/j. issn.1002-6819.2015.23.035
Xiao Dong, Zhou Wenhua, Deng Hang, Huang Yang. Process optimization of fresh noodle compound anti-aging additives and Avrami retrogradation kinetic[J]. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering (Transactions of the CSAE),2015,31(23):261-268. DOI:10.11975/j. issn.1002-6819.2015.23.035